Background: Nasal colonization of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) plays a key role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of both healthcare-associated and community-acquired MRSA infections in various populations. Screening of MRSA nasal colonization is important in the prevention and control of infection and may provide useful information to guide antimicrobial therapy. This study aimed to determine nasal carriage of MRSA, its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and associated factors among janitors working in hospital & non-hospital areas at the University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.
Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out in a total of 436 study participants (221 hospital and 215 non-hospital janitors) from January to May 2019. The study participants were sampled using a simple random sampling technique. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and associated factors were collected through face to face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Nasal swabs were collected and inoculated into Mannitol salt agar. MRSA was detected using cefoxitin (30µg) disc and an antibiotic susceptibility test was done using the disc diffusion method. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 101/436 (23.2%, [95% CI: 19.3-27.8], of which, 29.4% (65/221) were isolated from hospital and 16.7% (36/215) non-hospital janitors. The prevalence of MRSA was 4.8% (21/436) [95% CI: 3.0-6.9]; of these, 8.1% (18/221) of the isolates were from the hospital and 1.4% (3/215) non-hospital janitors, while MSSA in hospital & non-hospital janitors were 49 (22.2%) and 31 (14.4%), respectively. Among the MRSA isolates, 52.4% (11/21) were multi-drug resistant. Of these, 42.9% (9/18) were isolated from hospital and 66.7% (2/3) non-hospital janitors. Hence, nasal carriage of MRSA was significantly associated with hospitalization within the preceding year (AOR = 3.15, CI = 1.13-8.71).
Conclusion: The present study revealed that high MSSA and MRSA were isolated from the hospital as compared to non-hospital janitors and high rates of antibiotics resistance were recorded in the hospital janitors. Consequently, hospitalizations were significantly associated with MRSA. Accordingly, regular screening of carriers in apparently healthy janitors is required for the prevention of nosocomial infections.