Widespread climate warming and growing season greening have been observed across most of the Northern Hemisphere in recent decades. However, the response of greening to amplified warming remains unclear with regard to the temporal effects (cumulative and time-lag effects) in cold regions of the Northern Hemisphere. We therefore provide a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and climate factors (e.g., land surface temperature (LST), precipitation, and solar radiation) across Siberia, which is experiencing rapid warming and greening, during 2000–2016 by using a random forest regression model. We found that solar radiation was the dominant driving factor of vegetation greening in 55.95% of the study area (concentrated in southwest Siberia), followed by temperature (41.28%, concentrated in northeast Siberia) and precipitation (2.78%). Furthermore, the cumulative and time-lag effects increased the explanation of vegetation variation by climate factors, from 0.71 to 0.78, and were observed in more than 80% of the area of Siberia. The average cumulative duration was 3.61 ± 1.97 months, and the time-lag period was 1.51 ± 1.20 months, with the longest term found in deciduous broadleaf forests and the shortest term found in shrublands. Our results indicated that the vegetation activities were influenced by cumulative effects combined with time-lag effects. The temporal effects varied with land cover categories, and the complex ecosystem generally corresponded to long-term temporal effects, and vice versa. Hence, the tundra shrub converted to boreal forest caused by warming in Siberia enhanced the climate temporal effects.