Increasing the number of environments for phenotyping of crop lines in earlier stages of breeding programs can improve selection accuracy. However, this is often not feasible due to cost. In our study, we investigated a partial phenotyping strategy that does not test all entries in all environments, but instead capitalizes on genomic prediction to predict missing phenotypes in additional environments without extra phenotyping expenditure. The breeders’ main interest – response to selection – was directly simulated to evaluate the effectiveness of the partial genomic phenotyping strategy in a wheat dataset. Whether the partial phenotyping strategy resulted in more selection response depended on the correlations of phenotypes between environments. The partial phenotyping strategy consistently showed statistically significant higher simulated responses to selection, compared to complete phenotyping, when the majority of completely phenotyped environments were negatively correlated and any extension environment was highly positively correlated with any of the completely phenotyped environments. Our results indicate that genomics-based partial phenotyping can improve selection response at middle stages of crop breeding programs.