Background: Residual hip dysplasia is one of the factors contributing to early hip joint osteoarthritis. The main problems caused by residual dysplasia are pain and instability of the hip joint caused by the lack of sufficient bony covering of the femoral head. The aim of this work was to radiologically assess the configuration change of a dysplastic hip joint after surgical treatment using the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy procedure.
Methods: We assessed the radiological parameters of patients with hip dysplasia treated by Bernense periacetabular osteotomy by performing a digital antero-posterior pelvis X-ray: central edge angle and femoral head coverage, medialization, distalization and ilio-ischial angle parameters. For normally distributed parameters, we used Student’s t-test; for parameters without a normal distribution, we used the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Correlations were assessed according to a normal distribution using the Pearson and Spearman method.
Results: For all parameters, we observed statistically significant differences in the measurements of dysplastic hip joints before and after the surgery. We also observed a statistically significant difference between the structure of dysplastic hip joints prior to the surgery and healthy hip joints from the control group based on all radiological parameters. The resulting medialization was 2.68 mm, distalization was 3.65 mm, and the ilio-ischial angle was changed by 2.62°. There was also an improvement in the femoral head bony covering: CEA by 17.61° and FHC by 16.46%.
Conclusions: Based on all the radiological parameters, we presented the difference between healthy and dysplastic hip joints. Learning the parameter values that are used to describe dysplastic hip joints will allow us to improve the imaging of the condition and will also allow for better planning and proper qualification of patients for surgical treatment of hip joint dysplasia.
Trial registration: Consent of the bioethics commission Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education 83/PB/2015 18.11.2015 Warsaw