The present study was designed to evaluate the ratio of HBV and HCV in hemodialysis patients. As false positivity is a common problem associated with ICT devices   so in order to refine the screening procedure, we analyzed all the ICT HCV positive samples by RT-PCR which indicated that 22% of the HD had antibodies against HCV which show significant decline because PCR is more sensitive to the viral genome . These results reveal that screening of blood and blood products by ICT devices may not predict the true picture of anti-HCV prevalence in HD Patients. In KP Pakistan, screening of the blood and blood products at maximum health care units is carried out with ICT devices only . We suggest that we should replace ICT procedures for screening in all health care units, especially those which are concerned with Dialysis.
The prevalence and incidence of HBV and HCV infections among dialysis patients vary widely between countries and also within the same country and it correlates with the prevalence in the general population [4; 11]. The World Health Organization (WHO) has compared hepatitis C to a “viral time bomb” and estimates that about 180 million people (some 3% of the world’s population) are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV)  and HD is considered to be one of the major risk factors for HCV transmission . Some earlier studies recorded 68% in Pakistan, 23.7% particularly in Quetta, 28.7% from Karachi and 24.7%, and 25.53% respectively from Lahore however 28% from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.  While the study from India conducted by  from 1992 to 2000 reported the frequency of HCV in HD was 30% thus HCV among dialysis patients varies markedly from country to country and among dialysis centers within a single country . However, the ratio of HCV is higher in either sex, male or female is not yet clearly understood but we recorded 21% in male and only 20% in female and a similar trend had recorded by  with 20.57% in male and 18.18% only in female from Hazara division, Pakistan. While this show contrast with  recorded which indicated the ratio of HCV in HD was higher in female as compared to male with 62.50% and 40.13% respectively. The reason for this higher frequency in females than in males is that  conducted the study in Saudi Arabia while the present study was carried out in Pakistan and areas are matter .
In this study, the overall prevalence of positive Anti-HBV in HD recorded (8%) but it is not known whether these patients were Anti-HBV positive before the start of dialysis or became positive during the dialysis. However, it has been noted that the risk of HBV infection correlates with the sex for example grater were recorded in male with 8.6% in male and 5% in female. In the current study, the frequency of HBV in HD patients from Peshawar is similar to the study reported by  with 7.5% from five HD centers in the Hazara division of Pakistan. Thus, the HD does not increase but significantly increase hepatitis C infection rates only . We recorded lover HBV in HD than Saudi Arabia 10% and Bahrain 11.8% [6; 26]. Nevertheless, the prevalence of HBV infection within dialysis units in developing countries appears higher 20% based on several reports . The reason for differences may be the proper regular screening test for HBV and isolation of dialysis devices before the patient is going under dialysis. Several factors are also including exposure to contaminating types of equipment that have been noted .
The ratio of HBV and HCV co-infection were recorded higher in male 3.7% as compared to female, which is recorded 2.5% and what has been done by  showed the male HD patients were more susceptible to HBV and HCV co-infection. The reason for higher co-infection of HBV and HCV in male than in female may be the man is more involved in outdoor activities and could be due to their exposure to various HCV risk factors  particularly barber community and multiple sexual exposures .
The current study reported a significant relationship between HCV, HBV infection and age of the patients in a way that patients aged more than 40 years were found to be more susceptible to HCV and HBV than younger patients and this could be attributed to  results, Old age groups were found more infected with HCV. It has been suspected that fragile health structure, unsterilized instruments and use of contaminated razor by barbers may be contributing to the spread of HCV  while in contrast a study  recorded relationship between HBV infection and age of the patients in a way that patients aged less than 40 years were found to be more susceptible to HBV than older patients, however, Other studies [30; 20] have reported a higher prevalence of HBV or HCV seropositivity in older patients and the reason for this difference is not clear but the one reason may be the older age people immune system is not enough strong. Also, the current study revealed that HCV infection in HD patients is increasingly seen than HBV.