Socio-demographic characteristic of reproductive age group of women
In this study a total of 669 participants had fully responded to the questionnaire making a response rate of 98.3%.The mean age of the respondents was 25.59 with the standard deviation of 2.89years. The study participants were predominantly Oromo 547(81.8%) and protestant 353 (52.8) by their ethnicity and religion respectively. More than half of participants 572 (85.5%) were married and 249(37.2%) of women were housewives. 272(40.7%) were getting monthly income of less than one thousand five hundred birr (Table 1)
Past Obstetrics characteristics
In this study 479(71.6) has been pregnant before, more than half 446 (56.9%) of the respondents were primigravida and 33 (14.7%) were multparous .Majority 349 (72.8%) of participants visited health facility for ANC service at least once, for their index child. Among mothers who attained ANC for their last pregnancy 42 (6.2%) were attained 4 and more times whereas, 135 (19.5%) and 172 (28%) were attained 2-3 and one times respectively. Three hundred fifty 73.1% of study participants delivered the index child at health facility (i.e. Health center or hospital), whereas their counterparts delivered outside health facility. However, only 179 (37.4%) of them visited health facility for post natal care.
Preconception care knowledge score.
Among the total of 669 participants, only 148 (22.1%) of women have heard about PCC before and majority of them 521 (77.9%) didn’t heard. For those who have heard about preconception care; the major source of information was health workers 54 (8.1%). Fifty two (7.8%), 28 (4.2%) and 14 (2.1%) of them have heard from the mass media, school and family/relatives respectively. Women’s knowledge on PCC were measured based on correct response using six preconception care knowledge questions .The calculated single knowledge factor was then categorized into three ordinal categories. Respondents who scored less than the 50th percentile or below the mean score were categorized as ‘poor/low PCC knowledge’. Whereas, who scored b/n 50th percentile to 75th percentile and those who scored > 75th percentile were categorized as with ‘medium’ and ‘high’ PCC knowledge respectively. For analytical purpose, those participant who scored ‘high’ and ‘medium’ PCC knowledge were merged all together into another category called ‘participants with good PCC knowledge’. More than half of the study participants 490 (73.2%) had inadequate knowledge and only 179(26.8%) had good PCC knowledge.
Knowledge on changes should be made before pregnancy
The study participants were asked to name the services covered in preconception cares that are otherwise referred to as changes should be made before pregnancy. Psycho active substance use (Alcohol stoppage, smoking cessation, avoid illicit drugs) 130 (19.4%), and family planning use 195 (29.1%) before pregnancy were the most frequently listed, whereas get a vaccination 40 (6 %) and screened and treated for disease 34(5.1%) were the least frequently mentioned by participants (Table 2)
Women’s knowledge on preconception health and behavioral risk factors affect fetus
Regarding women’s knowledge on preconception health and behavioural risk factors that could affect the fetus ; STIs including HIV/AIDS 481 (71.9%) ,Diabetes mellitus 331(49.5%), Obesity 167(25%) ,Epilepsy208 (31.1%) and alcohol consumption174(26.0%) are most frequently mentioned factors which can affect the fetus , whereas cigarette smoking 112 (16.7%), genetic problem126 (18.8%)and exposure to environmental hazard 83(12.4%) were the least frequently mentioned factors(Table 3)
Uptake of preconception care
Ninety seven (14.5%) women’s was utilized preconception care services and majority of them 572(85.5%) have not utilized. The study participants were asked the uptake level of PCC services and the most utilized preconception service were family planning 251 (37.5%), stop taking of illegal drugs 183(27.3%) , taking immunization against tetanus 145(21.65%) and received preconception screening for medical and genetic conditions 118(17.6%) . The least component mentioned by participants were cessation of alcohol and cigarette78 (11.6%), consumption of folic acid supplementation before pregnancy 52(7.7%). 150(22.4%) study participants also weight monitored before conception. Ninety-eight (14.6%) study participant utilized preconception care as a component of PCC.
Associated factors toward knowledge of PCC
The study reviled that five factors found to show association with knowledge of PCC. Women who had better educational status are three to four times more likely to have good knowledge than women who had lower educational status. A reproductive age group woman who has regular employment is two times more likely to have good knowledge than students and housewives. Women who have a history of institutional delivery are two times more likely to have good knowledge of PCC than those women who don’t have history of institutional delivery similarly women who utilize PNC and had history of using modern contraceptive are five times and two times more likely have good knowledge compared to their referent group.(Table 4).
Associated factors toward uptake of PCC
Women who had better family income greater than 2800 ETB per month are four times more likely to utilize PCC. Women who utilize PNC service nearly six times more likely to utilize PCC than those who don’t utilize PNC. Having good knowledge of PCC has shown positive association with uptake of PCC. Women who had good knowledge of PCC are four times more likely to utilize PCC than women who have poor knowledge of PCC (Table 5).