From its unique pole-to-pole orbit, the Juno spacecraft discovered cyclones arranged in polygonal patterns around the poles of Jupiter. In a related modeling study the stability of the pattern depends on shielding -- a ring of anticyclonic vorticity surrounding each cyclone. Without shielding the vortices merge. Here we present high-resolution measurements obtained by tracking clouds in sequences of infrared images. There is vorticity of both signs at 200-km scales. The standard deviation is 0.32 times the vorticity of a large cyclone, whose relative vorticity is 0.46 times the planetary vorticity. Shielding exists at large scales, and it has the magnitude and distance from the vortex center predicted in the model. There is horizontal divergence of both signs at 200-km scales, with standard deviation 0.64 times the vorticity standard deviation. We propose that these intense structures are convection and that convection is the principal energy source for the large vortices.