In order to promote research and conservation of species, zoos tend to promote the modernization of this system, such as the insertion of larger and adequate enclosures, environmental enrichments, and above all the conservation of species. The main objectives of this work were: to promote environmental food and cognitive enrichment for big cats, in addition to discussing the validity of this enrichment model. The study animals were 12 animals: four tigers (Panthera tigris), three puma (Puma concolor), three jaguars (Panthera onca) and two lions (Panthera leo). We used a basic ethogram for the analysis of behaviors, in which there was an analysis of specific behavior: rhythm and inactivity. With the focal animal observation method, and using the “surprise box” enrichment method, which consisted of pieces of meat inside cardboard boxes, the statistical results obtained indicated that enrichment increased social, rest and physiological behavior, and slowed down and downtime. Each species reacted in a specific way to enrichments, with better results being noticed with the Panthera onca group, followed by the Panthera leo, Panthera tigris and Puma concolor group, respectively. The theory of the use of environmental enrichment was proven and compared with other works similar to this one.