In order to investigate the mechanical characteristics of rocks under saturated water conditions, uniaxial loading experiments were conducted on rock specimens using the RMT-150B Rock Mechanics Experiment System based on theoretical analysis of the damage evolution mechanism of rock specimens considering saturation factors. And the damage of the specimens was monitored using the Soft Island DS5-16B acoustic emission system. During the test, the specimens were taken from six rock samples in different directions at the same roadway section location in a coal mine. The combined findings suggest that: The dispersion rate is positively correlated with the bearing capacity of rock specimens taken from different directions, AE ringing counts, amplitude, and energy appear to have a time-limited steady increase influenced by direction. For rock specimens in the same plane, the rock damage instantaneous energy lag amplitude and AE activity is proportional to the direction angle. The AE localization points in different directions are randomly distributed and scattered in various areas, and fracture beams and surface cracks are produced inside the rock corresponding to the AE acoustic emission.