This study aimed to identify ticks between May and August 2020 in the municipal slaughterhouse of Tadjenanet Mila, in north-eastern Algeria. A total of 262 ticks were collected from 448 animals, ten species were identified, namely, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma excavtum, Hyalomma scupense, Hyalomma lusitanicum, Hyalomma impeltatum and Hyalomma anatolicum. This is the first time to report the presence of Hyalomma excavtum and Hyalomma impeltatum in the region of Mila and Hyalomma impeltatum for the second time in north-eastern Algeria (Derradj et al., 2019; Data not published).
The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with the results obtained by Benchikh Elfegoun et al. in 2013. In the semi-arid region (Mila), seven species of ticks were also later described by Benchikh El-Fegoun et al. in 2014, noting the high prevalence for Rh. bursa 214 (71.1%). This tick is the vector of Bovine babesiosis in Babesia bigemina and B. bovis (Bourdeau, 1993). It was detected from June 2002 to May 2003, in Taher region (9.35%) (Benchikh El-Fegoun et al., 2007), and in Constantine at a rate of 122 (22.8) (Benchikh ElFegoun et al., 2019). Rh. bursa is a cosmopolitan tick; in Morocco this tick was found at a rate of 1326 (12.89%) (Laamri et al., 2012). Rh. (Boophilus) annulatus (3.43%) is the vector of Babesia bigemina and B. bovis in cattle. It was described in 2011 in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) (less than 5%) (Madder et al., 2011).
Rh. sanguineus, a tick rarely found in cattle, it was recorded in Mila (rate of 91) (34.73%). Their presence, reported at a rate of 26.6% (Benchikh Elfegoun et al., 2019), was also identified in Spain at a rate of 0.5% (Toure et al., 2014). In this study, Hy. scupense, a tick that transmits several pathogens such as Theileria annulata, was identified in arid regions, particularly in the north. These results are consistent with those of Gharbi et al. (2013; 2014), Benchikh El-Fegoun et al. (2018; 2019), Boutaleb (1982), and Yousfi-Monod (1986).
Hyalomma excavum was also identified in our study; it is a tick that can host Theileria annulata. This tick was identified as a vector of Theileria lestoquardi in Tunisia by Rjeibi et al. in 2016.
Hyalomma anatolicum was reported to be found in Iran at a rate of 38.83% (Biglari et al., 2018). In Iraq, 50 ticks collected from cows were characterised by PCR, the result showed the presence of Hyalomma anatolicum (Al-Fatlawi et al., 2018). In Turkey, a study by Aktas showed that 2895 ticks were identified as Hyalomma anatolicum and that 11.3% of male ticks and 22.4% of female ticks were positive in Theileria (Aktas et al., 2004). Hy impeltatum was found in the sub-humid region (Guelma) (Derradj et al., 2019). For this tick, it is important to note that this is the second report from north-eastern Algeria. In Tunisia, Bouattour described it in 1999 in arid and desert areas. It was also identified in Sudan by Um El Hassan Mustafa in 1983 as the vector of Theileria annulata. Hy impeltatum is mainly present in Mediterranean regions, steppes and deserts (Walker et al., 2003).
Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma lusitanicum are widespread in the Mediterranean climate (Walker, 2003). Hyalomma marginatum was already described by Benchikh Elfegoun in 2019 at 11%, and 3.9% for Hy. lusitanicum. The results show that it is abundant in the humid region (Jijel), but a few specimens were collected in both the sub-humid (Guelma) and semi-arid (Mila) regions by Derradj et al. in 2019; data not published). Their infestation prevalences are higher in the humid region (Jijel) and the sub-humid region (Guelma). Both species were reported in previous studies by Benchikh El-fegoun et al. (2007; 2014; 2019).
Rhipicephalus turanicus is a tick of sub-Saharan Africa, concentrated in sheep and horses, in North-Africa infests goats (Walker et al., 2003). This tick species known as vector of Rickettsia massiliae (Matsumoto et al., 2005) and Coxiella sp (Lalzar et al., 2012).