To investigate the clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of focal choroidal excavation (FCE) complicated with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in young and middle aged patients.
We performed a retrospective review of 26 patients with FCE accompanied by CNV. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients, focusing on the spectral-domain OCT features. All patients received intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents. And we assessed the changes of central retinal thickness and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) after anti-VEGF therapy.
The mean age of 26 patients was 35.5 ± 7.3 years (range, 21 - 48 years). Of the 26 FCE lesions, 11 were located subfoveally, 6 were parafoveal, and 9 were extrafoveal. The mean FCE depth was 129.8 ± 50.3 μm, and the mean width was 901.3 ± 306.0 μm. The FCE depth was correlated positively with the width, but not correlated with age or refractive error. CNV was located within the excavation (19 eyes) or adjacent to the excavation (7 eyes). After anti-VEGF therapy, the central retinal thickness was significantly reduced and the BCVA was significantly improved. In the absorption process of subretinal fluid, we found that the fluid in the excavations needed to be absorbed at the last. A small amount of residual fluid could still be seen in a few deep excavations even after a long-term follow-up.
FCE may be an important reason to cause CNV. Especially in young patients with idiopathic CNV, we should pay attention to the use of OCT to check the presence of FCE. Anti-VEGF therapy is generally effective for CNV associated with FCE.