Prediction of protein localization plays an important role in understanding protein function and mechanism. In this paper, we propose a general deep learning-based localization prediction framework, MULocDeep, which can predict multiple localizations of a protein at both subcellular and suborganellar levels. We collected a dataset with 45 suborganellar localization annotations in 10 major subcellular compartments, the most comprehensive suborganelle localization dataset to date. We also experimentally generated an independent dataset of mitochondrial proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures, Solanum tuberosum tubers, and Vicia faba roots and made this dataset publicly available. Evaluations using the above datasets show that overall MULocDeep outperforms other major methods at both subcellular and suborganellar levels. Furthermore, MULocDeep assesses each amino acid’s contribution to localization, which provides insights into the mechanism of protein sorting and localization motifs. A web server can be accessed at http://mu-loc.org/.