A planetary surface’s resistance to change is generally described as its “strength” (units of stress). The surface strength of small, rubble-pile asteroids, which consist of fragments of larger bodies that were collisionally disrupted, is poorly constrained due to their wide departure from terrestrial analogs. Here, we report the observation of an ejecta deposit surrounding an impact crater that limits the maximum surface strength of the near-Earth rubble-pile asteroid (101955) Bennu. The presence of this deposit implies that ejecta were mobilized with velocities less than the escape velocity of Bennu, 20 cm/s. Because ejecta velocities increase with surface strength, the ejecta deposit can only be explained if the effective strength of the surface material near the crater is exceedingly low, ≤100 Pa. This is three orders of magnitude below values commonly used for asteroid surfaces, but is supported by previous observations of an artificial impact crater on a similar asteroid, Ryugu. Our findings indicate a mobile surface that has likely been renewed multiple times since Bennu’s initial assembly and have far-reaching implications for interpreting observations of Bennu and other rubble piles.