5.1 Major climate sensitive livelihood resources.
According to some households during survey, fishing was identified as major climate sensitive livelihood activity and ranked the lowest climate sensitive livelihood activity (1.75%) of the respondents their major livelihood activity was fishing. Hunting was identified as another major climate sensitive livelihood activity (1.7%) of the respondent their major climate sensitive livelihoods activity was hunting, which ranked the second lowest. Others livelihood activities were (non dependent on climate sensitive livelihood activities like business and white collar job).The collection of NTFPs was also another major climate sensitive livelihood activity/resources (61.3%) of the respondents do carried out the collections of NTFP as their major livelihood activity and was ranked the second highest major livelihood activity and agriculture ranked the highest major livelihood activity (100%) of the respondents carried out agriculture as their major livelihood activity. From this study it was observed that, the entire households do carry out different agricultural activities but to some households it is not their major livelihood activities (Figure.3)
5.2 Level of dependency on climate sensitive livelihoods resources
In the study area, respondents ranked their level of dependency on climate sensitive livelihood activities/resources based on the significant contribution climate sensitive livelihood activities/resources (tree products, plant materials and forest product for food and agricultural activities like farming) make to household’s income and other household needs (Figure.4). The three-level ranking was used based on the significant role these resources play in livelihoods sustainability. (High dependency = Home consumption and frequent sale of surplus on the local market; Moderate Dependency = Home consumption and occasional sale on the local market; Less dependency = Home consumption only) Generally, (46.7%) of the total respondents were ranked as high level of dependency on forest resources. In this category, respondents described the contribution of climate sensitive livelihood activities/ resources to household’s income as very significant. The study showed that level of dependency on fishing was(11.8%) following the field survey which ranked the third lowest dependency, follow by hunting which recorded a percentage of (6.8%) which ranked the second lowest dependency while others activities recorded (3.4%) level of dependency which ranked the lowest dependency while the collections of NTFPs recorded (39.8%) of dependency which ranked the second highest dependency and finally agriculture recorded the (99.2%) level of dependency and was ranked the first highest level of dependency following the survey.(Figure.4)
5.3 Perception on climate change impacts on major livelihoods resources (agriculture and its indicators)
Agriculture is still highly dependent on climate; temperature, light, and water are the main drivers of crop growth. The perception of climate change impact on agriculture was based on the following indicators like pest and diseases, drought, erratic rainfall, prolong, rainfall, low production, changing seasons and strong winds. In this study (74.6%) of the respondents agreed that pest and diseases have been affecting their agricultural activities in the past 10 years especially cocoa. This finding is like the study of (INS,2009b). Low production (83.2%) of the respondents agreed that this have been the principal climatic threat to their agricultural activities leading to food insecurity in these communities. Erratic rainfall as one the indicator, (81.5%) of the respondents believed the climatic stress they are facing on their agricultural activities is erratic rainfall which have change their traditional farming which they use to have in the past. This finding is like another study carry out (Bele et al.,2013). According to the survey (54.2%) of respondents agreed that prolong rainy seasons was affecting their agricultural activities which result to post harvest problem and food insecurity. This finding is similar to the study carried out by ((Yengoh et al., 2010a). In addition, (97.5%) of respondents said strong winds is one of the climatic stress affecting their livelihood activity (agriculture). This finding is like the study carried out by (Bele et al.2013). Following the household survey, (94.1%) of respondents agreed that the increase in climatic events like drought have increase food insecurity in this communities which their livelihoods depend on agriculture. (Figure.5). According this communities, changing seasons (100%) of the respondents is affecting the production calendar which at first was clearly defined but now farmers needs to adapt to unpredicted rainfall and dry season patterns. This finding was revealed by (Chia et al.2011).
5.4 Respondents perception of climate change impact on fishing and its indicators
Fishing is another activity and a source of income to some households in the study area. According to responses during the survey, (9.8%) of the household agreed that, the drying of water courses due to unreliable rainfall have reduced fishing ground in this communities leading to reduction in the quantities of fish which is caught, for the past 10 years for commercial and for subsistence. In addition, drought (93.2%) of the households agreed that, the principal climatic threat to fishing activity was drought especially during the short rainy seasons reducing food compliments of the households. (Figure.6). Furthermore, household responses (69.5%)agreed that heavy rainfall is the climatic disturbance affecting fishing in this communities especially as the rainy seasons have been come rainier in the past years.
5.5 The perception of respondents on the impact of climate change on NTFPs
Forest resources in the form of NTFPs serve as safety nets, sustaining the livelihoods of some forest communities in Mambioko. They play a vital role in income generation and household food security (Nkem et al.2010). The results of this study indicate that the collection and sale of NTFPs is a major livelihood activity and a source of income for households especially in Ngoume andthe access to NTFPs is open to the peoples in both community forest settings. They collect NTFPs known as Mbalaka, Maobi (Baillonellatoxisperma), Nguimba, Bush mango (Irvingagabonensis), Njansang (RicinodendronHeudelotti subsp. Africanum). NTFPs collection is very strategic in the Mambioko CF, it constitutes about (39.9%) of main livelihood activity and source of income. In this study 91.8% of the household agreed that heavy rainfall prevented the collections of NTFPs especially fuel wood which by is used all the household in Mambioko CF.Households involved in the collection of NTFPs as a main livelihood activity especially in Bidi the households communicated that the harvesting of fruits from the different tree species is at times poor as a result of poor flowering and fruiting of the tree species. In addition, (94.3%) of the household agreed that drought as one of the climate impacts on climate sensitive activities/resources in these communities. Drought have caused serious problem in collection of some NTFPs species especially njansang which have become very difficult for back to decompose and cracking to remove the nuts. Furthermore (98.1%) of the household indicates that changing seasons is currently affecting the collections of NTFPs due to unpredictable pronounce seasonality like the occurrence of dry Months which have become drier, occurrence less precipitation has reduced the resilience of some plants species due to prolong dry season. Also (84.9%) of the household agreed that erratic rainfall is affecting the collection of NTFPs especially the harvesting of certain fruits in some tree species according some household in Ngoume is very poor due pests and diseases that affect the flowering of this fruits base on their local knowledge.
5.6Socio-economic vulnerability of respondents in the study site base on six selected indicators
The socio-economic vulnerability in the study site was estimated using six socio-economic indicators. In the estimation, the following assumptions were made:
5.6.1 Household size (HH): Higher household size is associated with higher vulnerability
5.6.2 Level (LE): Lower education level is associated with higher vulnerability
5.6.3 Level of Awareness of Climate change issues (Access to Climate Change information (ACI): Lower access to climate change information is associated with high vulnerability
5.6.4 Dependence on climate sensitive activities/resources (DCO): Higher dependence on climate sensitive occupation is associated with higher vulnerability
5.6.5 Low income (High income is associated with lower vulnerability and lower income is associated with high vulnerability
5.6.6 Poverty is associated with high vulnerability
5.7Coping and adaptation strategies.
The enabling framework for gaining access to both this knowledge and the resources with which it can be translated into concrete actions that promote adaptation, however, most be provided by governmental and non-governmental institutions at the local, national and international level (Yengoh et al. 2009). The importance of indigenous people as an indispensable asset of knowledge on environmental issues and problems in their communities is well-known (Johnston et al. (2009). At the centre of this communication and collaboration, Vignola et al. (2009) advocate an ecosystem-based framework in which addressing the problems of ecosystem degradation and the conservation of natural capital are the main focus. In this study, (4.2%) of the household used fertilizers in their farms in order to increase yields. The local agriculture system depends on natural temperature, sunshine and rainfall. This implies adjusting and improving (technically, financially and materially) agriculture activities which will reduce the vulnerability and increase the adaptive capacity of households. The planting of trees to protect winds (5.9%) of the household have planted trees especially around their houses to protect strong winds during torrential rainfall which is accompanied by strong winds in the study site which use to off roof their houses and most households used their traditional methods to protect winds by tying red pieces of cloths round their farms land. Additional (7.6%) of the household have adopted irrigation system of farming during the prolong dry seasons and drought, they moved to swamps areas and opened their new farms where water is available throughout the year the local farmer used watering cane to send water into the farms. They described this irrigation system as “climatic push factor”.
Furthermore 32.8% of household have diversified their crops, sustaining the diversity of crops it is an appropriate adaptation option for food security and livelihood in this communities. This finding is like other studies carried out by (IDRC, 2009). Household in the study area has expressed their willingness to integrate other livelihood activities like food crops and livestock rearing (sheep) have increase their source of income especially small farmers in the study area. This is similar to the findings of (Yengoh et al. 2010).The head master of the Mambiko primary school have initiated beekeeping farming in the Mambioko village though he faced a lot of challenges(financial and technical) This study also show that diversification as an adaptation option at the local levels, cuts across different sectors (environment, forest and wild life, livestock and fisheries, agriculture and rural development, scientific research, finance and commerce), thus it requires the development of inter-sectoral coordination. This finding is supported by that of Yengoh et al (2010), which draw attention to the fact that coordination and collaboration is required between sectors that build the capacity of rural livelihoods.
In this result (69.7%) of household have diversified their occupation in order to reduce their vulnerability to local climate and uncertainty. Engaging in non-climate dependent alternative jobs such as driving, masonry works, sale of assorted goods “provision store”, shoe repairing, painting, sewing or dress making was ranked the second highest among the coping measures described by respondents. Although the dominant occupation is farming and therefore it is expected that most people will give priority to any coping measures that will help sustain their dominant livelihood activity, household members especially the young migrating to urban centres in search for jobs resulting to rural exodus in the study site. Finally, (78.2%) of respondent have increased their farms sizes. According to the household, they increase their farms sizes every beginning of farming season as an adaptation option to local climate variability and uncertainty. The expansion of agricultural land is a coping and adaptation strategy for these forest dependent communities (Figure.8). This supported the findings carried around the same area (Bele et al., 2013a, 2013b and Chia et al., 2013). Increasing the agriculture land to compensate for losses has put more pressure on other natural resources on which the communities depend, resulting in a perverse cycle that could increase their vulnerability even more. Increased climate variability and uncertainty seems to be one of the main disturbances shaping current vulnerability in these communities.