In recent years, the excessive and unreasonable use of chemicals, the occasional use of water, and the use of improper irrigation methods have created a worrying and unstable situation in developing countries' agricultural activities. In the present study, the robust multi-objective fractional linear programming model (RMOLFP) was introduced to determine the sustainable optimal cropping pattern. This model was presented in the Gotvand irrigation and drainage network located in Khuzestan province, southern Iran, under two scenarios with and without considering the uncertainty to evaluate the ability of the model. The results showed that in the first scenario, the consumption of critical disruptive inputs of sustainable agriculture such as fertilizers and chemical pesticides decreased by 5.9% and 8.19%, respectively. On the other hand, the model's uncertainty condition was applied in the second scenario in which the increase in gross margin was reduced. There is a trade-off between protecting the optimization model against system uncertainty and gross margin. Finally, the ability of the proposed model to apply uncertainty conditions was verified by the Monte Carlo simulation method. The results of this simulation confirmed the use of the RMOLFP method in determining the sustainable optimal cropping pattern for the study area.