Salvia officinalis L. essential oil (SoEO) was mostly traditionally used to medicate various diseases as cancer. Then, the present work aims were: (1) to model the cytotoxicity effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil (SoEO) related to the human cancer cell lines kind (MCF-7 and HeLa) ; (2) to optimize the hydro-distillation extraction conditions of SoEO; and, (3) to determine the in vitro scavenging capacity of the free radicals DPPH•, NO•, ABTS+, and the ability to reduce Fe3+.
The cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative abilities were evaluated by measuring cell viability and then modeled. Two human cell lines: MCF-7 and HeLa were used. The optimization of SoEO extraction by hydro-distillation was carried out with Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using the Box–Behnken design
The cytotoxicity activity against both tumor cell lines MCF-7 and HeLa was considerably important with IC50 = 3.125 and 8.920 µg/mL, respectively. All treated cell lines showed a significant reducing in cell viability in response to the increasing oil concentration. The relative behaviors of both cell lines under SoEO treatment were modeled. The obtained optimal extraction yield was Y = 1.85 g/100 g d.b. The main identified fractions were camphene (23.7%), α-thujone (19.62%), 1,8-cineole (10.6%), viridiflorol (5.9%), borneol (5.72%); β-thujone (5.4%); caryophyllene (3,83%). Also, SoEO was mostly able to scavenge DPPH• free radical, ABTS+ radical and hydrogen peroxide in an amount dependent manner (IC50 = 0.97, 0.279 and 0.05 mg/mL, respectively).
The present work provides a preliminary platform for further investigation of the possible mechanism of S. officinalis essential oils and their individual compounds in cytotoxic and antitumor activity.