The aim is to further improve the efficiency of iris detection and ensure real-time iris data acquisition. Here, the light field refocusing algorithm can collect the data in real-time based on the existing iris data acquisition and detection system, and the DL (Deep Learning) CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) is introduced. Consequently, an iris image acquisition and real-time detection system based on CNN is proposed, and the system for image acquisition, processing, and displaying is constructed based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The spatial filtering algorithm can compare the performance of the proposed bilateral filters with common filters. The results indicate that the proposed bilateral filters can pick out qualified iris images in real-time, greatly improving the accuracy of the iris image recognition system. The average time for real-time quality assessment of each frame image is less than 0.05 seconds. The classification accuracy of the iris image quality assessment algorithm based on DL is 96.38%, higher than the other two algorithms, and the average classification error rate is 3.69%, lower than the average error rate of other algorithms. The results can provide a reference for real-time iris image detection and data acquisition.