Ethics approval and consent to participate:
Study protocol was approved by the institutional review board (NCC IRB, ref. 2017-279). Informed consent requirement was waived due to the study’s observational retrospective design, with an opt-out opportunity provided at the institution’s website.
Consent for publication:
Availability of data and materials:
DK initiated the study, participated in its design and data collection, performed statistical analyses, and drafted the manuscript. YK was responsible for study conception and helped manuscript writing. SH and AK1 participated in data collection. YN, AK2, HB, HT, KS, TK, AT edited manuscript. TY helped manuscript writing and participated in manuscript editing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
DK reports receiving honoraria from Takeda, Chugai, Lilly, and Merck Serono. YK reports receiving honoraria from Taiho, research funding from Taiho, Takeda, Ono, AstraZeneca, INC research, Daiichi-Sankyo, and Boehringer Ingelheim. YN reports research funding from Ono and Taiho. AK2 reports receiving research funding from Ono, Sumitomo Dainippon and Taiho. HB reports receiving lecturer fee from Taiho and Lilly; research expenses from Taiho, AstraZeneca, and Sysmex. HT reports receiving honoraria from Takeda, Chugai, Merck Serono, Taiho, Bayer, Lilly, Yakult, and Sanofi. KS reports paid consulting or advisory roles for Astellas, Lilly, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Takeda, Pfizer, Ono and MSD; honoraria from Novartis, AbbVie, and Yakult; and research funding from Astellas, Lilly, Ono, Sumoitomo Dainippon, Daiichi Sankyo, Taiho, Chugai, MSD and Medi Science. TK reports receiving research funding from Shionogi, MSD, Ono Pharmaceutical, Chugai, Oncolys BioPharma, Astellas Amgen BioPharma, and Parexel. AT reports receiving honoraria from Daiichi-Sankyo, Taiho, Chugai, Merck Serono, Takeda, and Bristol-Myers Squibb; speaker’s bureau from Chugai, Taiho, Takeda, and Merck Serono. YK reports receiving honoraria Takeda, Chugai, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Ono, Merck Biopharma, Taiho, Bayer, Lilly, Yakult Honsha, Sanofi, Nipro, Moroo, Asahi Kasei, Mitsubishi Tanabe, Otsuka, Medical Review, and Shiseido; research funding from MSD, Daiichi Sankyo, NanoCarrier, Eisai, Sysmex, Shionogi, IQVIA, Parexel International, Astellas, Mediscience, Sumitomo Dainippon, A2 Healthcare, Ono, Taiho, Bayer, Yakult Honsha, and Sanofi. TS reports receiving honoraria from Chugai, Merck Serono, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Takeda, Yakult Honsha, Lilly, Bayer Yakuhin, Ono, Merck, Astellas Pharma, Taiho, and Nihonkayaku; consulting or advisory role from Bayer, Lilly, Ono, Takara Bio, Merck Serono, and Nihonkayaku; research funding from Yakult Honsha, Chugai, Ono, Sanofi, Lilly, Daiichi Sankyo, Merck Serono, Gilead Sciences, and Dainippon Sumitomo. TE reports receiving honoraria from Lilly, Taiho, Bristol-Myers Squibb Japan, Eisai, Daiichi Sankyo, Merck Serono, Chugai, Ono, Takeda, Bayer, and Sanofi; research funding from Daiichi Sankyo, Merck Serono, MSD, Novartis, Dainippon Sumitomo, Ono, Astellas Pharma, Lilly, Bayer, Nihonkayaku, Pfizer, and Bristol-Myers Squibb Japan. SN reports receiving honoraria from Taiho and Astrazeneca. AS reports receiving research funding from MSD, Eisai, Ono, Taiho, Takeda, and Bayer. AO reports receiving honoraria from Ono, BMS, Chugai, Taiho, Eisai, and Amgen; research funding from Bristol-Myers Squibb; immediate family member of Atsushi Ohtsu have been employed by Celgene. TY reports receiving research funding from Novartus, MSD, Sumitomo Dainippon, Chugai, Sanofi, Daiichi-Sankyo, Parexel, Ono, GlaxoSmithKline, and Boehringer Ingelheim.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.