Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the most commonly used anthracyclines for the treatment of solid and hematological tumors such as B-/T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Dox compromises topoisomerase-II enzyme functionality, thus inducing structural damages during DNA replication and causes direct damages intercalating into DNA double helix. Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA damages by activating the ATM-CHK2 and/or ATR-CHK1 pathway, whose function is to regulate cell cycle progression, to promote damage repair and to control apoptosis. We evaluated the efficacy of a new drug schedule combining Dox and specific ATR (VE-821) or CHK1 (prexasertib, PX) inhibitors in the treatment of human B-/T- cell precursor ALL cell lines and primary ALL leukemic cells. We found that ALL cell lines respond to Dox activating the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint. Exposure of Dox-pretreated ALL cell lines to VE-821 or PX enhanced Dox cytotoxic effect. This phenomenon was associated with the abrogation of the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint with changes in the expression pCDK1 and cyclin B1, and cell entry in mitosis, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Indeed, the inhibition of the G2/M checkpoint led to a significant increment of normal and aberrant mitotic cells, including those showing tripolar spindles, metaphases with lagging chromosomes and massive chromosomes fragmentation. In conclusion, we found that the ATR-CHK1 pathway is involved in the response to Dox-induced DNA damages and we demonstrated that our new in vitro drug schedule that combines Dox followed by ATR/CHK1 inhibitors can increase Dox cytotoxicity against ALL cells, while using lower drug doses.