In the present study, the prevalence of HBV and HCV in the Guilan site of PERSIAN cohort were reported. We found the prevalence of 0.2 and 0.1 for HBV and HCV, respectively. Moreover, rural participants were significantly more HBV positive while male individuals were significantly more HCV positive. Finally, HBV positive patients had significant lower platelet count, RDWCV, cholesterol, LDL and LDL: HDL ratio and HCV positive patients had significant higher MCH, MCHC, AST, ALT and HDL and significant lower LDL and LDL:HDL ratio compared to related negative individuals.
The prevalence of HBV and HCV is very difference worldwide, which is related to geographical region and demographic factors. In 2015, it has been reported that HBV sero-prevalence was 8.83% (0.48 - 22.38) in African region, 0.81% (0.20 - 13.55) in Americas region, 3.01% (0.67 - 14.77) in Eastern Mediterranean region, 2.06% (0.01 - 10.32) in European region, 1.90% (0.82 - 6.42) in South East Asian region, 5.26% (0.37 - 22.70) in Western Pacific region . In addition, there are several diversity in HBV prevalence between different states/provinces of each country. Since 2006 when the national vaccination program for peoples who born after 1993 were started and continued, an obvious decrease in the HBV prevalence was seen . Therefore, Iran is classified as low to intermediate prevalence areas . Although our detected rate of HBV infection is too lower than reported pooled HBV prevalence in Iran among general population (2.2%) in 2016 , it is approximately similar to our previous report about volunteer blood donors as 0.45 -0.48% [30, 31] and to reported rates from Karaj as 0.4% , Kermanshah as 0.7%  and Kurdistan as 0.8% . Also, our reported HBV infection rate is lower than those reported from Birjand as 1.6% , Tehran, Golestan, and Hormozgan as 2.6% , and Nahavand as 2.3% . In addition, some population sub-groups are more likely susceptible to have HBV. For instances in our province, 71.3% of hemophiliacs , and 0.38 - 3.8 % of hemodialysis patients [20, 21, 23] were HBV positive. We found that men are more HBV positive than women (16 vs. 9 cases) which is similar to previous reports from Iran about higher prevalence of HBV infection in men [19, 38].
The pooled HCV prevalence of 0.3%, 6.2%, and 32.1% were reported for general, intermediate- and high-risk Iranian populations, respectively . Again, diversities between different cities/provinces and subgroups are seen. It has been reported that all healthy adults of Isfahan  and Mashhad , blood donors of Tehran , Ardabil , and Ahvaz , infertile male of Tehran , and male blood donor of Tabriz  were HCV negative. Our detected HCV prevalence (0.1%) is lower than pooled HCV prevalence of Iranian general population as 0.3%  and is differed from previous report from Rasht as 0.03% and Guilan as 0.32% . Also, our detected HCV prevalence is lower than other reported prevalence from Northern provinces of Iran. For instance, HCV prevalence was 0.48% in Babol , and 0.18 – 1% in Golestan [49-51]. However, Zamani et al. reported similar HCV prevalence as 0.08% in general population of Mazandaran province . Higher male HCV positivity, as seen in our study, was also reported previously from Kerman province , Zahedan , and Kavar . However, in opposite to our study, Ghadir et al. reported that female were more HCV positive compared to male in general population of Golestan . Finding of one woman who her daughter also was HCV positive and both had same HCV genotype highlighted the clear role of interfamilial HCV transmission and confirmed the significant role of close relatives which reported previously .
Although, we detected no significant associations between demographic variables and prevalence of HBV and HCV, but it seems that different demographic features of population in different regions are the most important reasons for these differences in HBV and HCV prevalence. Base on Baig's study the male to female ratio of HBV increased during the reproductive years. There may be an influence of estrogen in the protection and defense of hepatic cells against the development of chronic liver disease . In Zeng et.al study married people had the highest prevalence of HBsAg , on the other hand in Ataei et.al study in Isfahan province no statistical difference observed in terms of marital status but males (OR= 3.79) had higher prevalence of HBV than women .
About biochemical analysis, we found some significant differences. Among them, decrease of LDL and subsequently LDL: HDL ratio in both HBV and HCV positive patients compared to negative ones are interesting. These are in line with those reported recently as significant hypolipidemia in HBV  and HCV  patients. Lower platelet count in HBV positive, as we found in this study, also reported previously . It can be said that, both HBV and HCV influenced the liver tissue and the changes in biochemical and hematological parameters can be related to these changes in the hepatic functions.