Background: This study investigates whether ultra-early indicators can predict severity of acute hypertriyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP) and affect clinical decisions.
Methods: For this observational retrospective study, we analyzed data of 110 HTGP patients enrolled between January 2017 and February 2020. HTGP patients were categorized into mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) and moderately severe acute pancreatitis-severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP-SAP) groups, based on their final clinical outcomes. Demographic and clinical data were collected and ultra-early indicators (serum calcium, triglyceride (TG), interleukin-6(IL-6), D-dimer, hemoglobin A1c(HbAc1), arterial lactate) levels were measured within 6 hours of admission. A multivariate logistic regression analysis model and receiver operating characteristic curve were used to determine ultra-early indicators values of high-risk patients. The chi-square test method was applied to estimate the hospitalization time and associated complications in MSAP-SAP group post-plasma exchange within or more than 24 hours.
Results: Among the 110 HTGP patients, 56 were in the MAP group whereas, 54 were in the MSAP-SAP group. TG, IL-6, D-dimer, HbAc1, and arterial lactate levels measured within 6 hours after admission were significantly higher in the MSAP-SAP group, but serum calcium was significantly lower, versus the mild AP group. IL-6, D-dimer and serum calcium were identified as the risk factors for MSAP-SAP and were potential ultra-early indicators for predicting HTGP severity within 6 hours of admission. MSAP-SAP patients that underwent blood purification therapy within 24 hours of admission had a shorter hospitalization time than those treated 24 hours post-admission.
Conclusion: The present study reveals IL-6, D-dimer, and serum calcium - ultra-early indicators - as promising biomarkers in the assessment of AP severity in HTGP patients within 6 hours. Early blood purification presents a novel therapy among MSAP-SAP patients within 24 hours and is associated with fewer complications and a shorter hospitalization time. However, traditional therapy can be further integrated to manage MAP patients effectively with less medical expenses.