Background Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) following the development of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is rare and usually occurs in children. This is the first case of DKA following PRES that we know of that occurred in an adult.
Case report We encountered a middle-aged woman with a one-day history of nausea and vomiting who presented with DKA and seizure, along with hallucinations. On presentation, we performed physical examinations and blood biochemistry tests to ascertain the cause of these symptoms. We also performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her brain, which showed typical brain edema in the bilateral occipital and parietal regions, which indicated PRES. We treated the patient’s symptoms by administering adequate hydration and administering an infusion of insulin of 30 U after breakfast and 15 U after dinner to bring her blood sugar levels under control.
The brain MRI we performed showed hyperintensity of the bilateral occipital and parietal cortexes on a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery T2 weighted image, after which the patient was diagnosed with PRES. The patient was discharged thirteen days after admission with stable blood sugar and blood pressure levels.
Conclusions Physicians should keep this condition in mind as a possible complication of DKA and treat it quickly and efficiently in order to attain a good patient outcome.
This is the first report of DKA-induced PRES in an adult, and physicians should keep this condition in mind as a possible complication of DKA, which is treatable and may have a good prognosis.