Background: Precise visualization of meshes and their position would greatly aid in mesh shrinkage evaluation, hernia recurrence risk assessment, and the preoperative planning of salvage repair. Lightweight (LW) meshes are able to preserve abdominal wall compliance by generating less post-implant fibrosis and rigidity. However, conventional 3D imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cannot visualize the LW meshes. Patients sometimes have to undergo a second-look operation for visualizing the mesh implants. The goal of this work is to investigate the potential advantages of Automated 3D breast ultrasound (ABUS) pore texture analysis for implanted LW hernia mesh identification.
Methods: In vitro, the appearances of four different flat meshes in both ABUS and 2D hand-held ultrasound (HHUS) images were evaluated and compared. In vivo, pore texture patterns of 87 hernia regions were analyzed both in ABUS images and their corresponding HHUS images.
Results: In vitro studies, the imaging results of ABUS for implanted LW meshes are much more visualized and effective in comparison to HHUS. In vivo, the inter-class distance of 40 texture features was calculated. The texture features of 2D sectional plans (axial and sagittal plane) have no significant contribution to implanted LW mesh identification. Significant contribution was observed in coronal plane. However, since the mesh may have spatial variation such as shrinkage after implant surgery, the inter-class distance of 3D coronal plane pore texture features are bigger than 2D coronal plane, so the contribution of 3D coronal plane pore texture features are more valuable than 2D coronal plane for implanted LW mesh identification. The use of 3D pore texture features significantly improved the robustness of the identification method in distinguishing the LW mesh and fascia.
Conclusions: An innovative new automated 3D breast ultrasound (ABUS) provides additional pore texture visualization, by separating the LW mesh from the fascia tissues. Therefore, ABUS having the potential to provide more accurate features to characterize pore texture patterns, and ultimately provide more accurate measures for implanted LW mesh identification.