In response to vascular injury vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) alternate between a differentiated (contractile) and a dedifferentiated (synthetic) state or phenotype. Although parts of the signaling cascade regulating the phenotypic switch have been described, little is known on the role of miRNAs involved. To systematically address this issue, we have established a microscopy-based quantitative assay and identified 23 miRNAs that induced contractile phenotypes when over-expressed. These were then correlated to miRNAs identified from RNA-sequencing when comparing cells in the contractile and synthetic states. Using both approaches, six miRNAs (miR-132-3p, miR-138-5p, miR-141-3p, miR-145-5p, miR-150-5p, and miR-22-3p) were filtered as candidates that induce the phenotypic switch from synthetic to contractile. To identify potentially common regulatory mechanisms of these six miRNAs, their predicted targets were compared with five miRNAs sharing ZBTB20, ZNF704, and EIF4EBP2 as common potential targets and four miRNAs sharing 16 common potential targets. The interaction network consisting of these 19 targets and additional 18 hub targets were created to facilitate validation of miRNA-mRNA interactions by suggesting the most plausible pairs. Furthermore, the information on drug candidates was integrated into the network to predict novel combinatorial therapies that encompass the complexity of miRNAs-mediated regulation. This is the first study that combines phenotypic screening approach with RNA sequencing and bioinformatics to systematically identify miRNAs-mediated pathways and to identify potential drug candidates to positively influence the phenotypic switch of VSMCs.