The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2014. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/reports/50-years-of-progress/. Accessed 15 Jan 2021.
 GBD 2019 Risk Factors Collaborators. Global burden of 87 risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet. 2020; 396(10258):1223-1249.
 Smoking & Tobacco Use: Fast Facts. In: Office on Smoking and Health, Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/fast_facts/index.htm. Accessed 20 Jan 2021.
 Cornelius ME, Wang TW, Jamal A, Loretan CG, Neff LJ. Tobacco product use among adults—United States, 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020; 69(46):1736-1742.
 Babb S, Malarcher A, Schauer G, Asman K, Jamal A. Quitting smoking among adults—United States, 2000-2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.2017; 65(52):1457-1464.
 Shields PG, Herbst RS, Arenberg D. Smoking Cessation, Version 1.2016, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2016 Nov; 14(11):1430-1468.
Haddad A, Davis AM. Tobacco Smoking Cessation in Adults and Pregnant Women: Behavioral and Pharmacotherapy Interventions. JAMA. 2016; 315(18):2011-2012. .
 Smith SS, McCarthy DE, Japuntich SJ. Comparative effectiveness of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies in primary care clinics. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2009; 169(22):2148-2155.
 Aumann I, Rozanski K, Damm K, Graf von der, Schulenburg JM. Cost-Effectiveness of Pharmacological Smoking Cessation Therapies - A Systematic Literature Review. Das Gesundhtswesen. 2016; 78(10):660-671.
 Zhao X. Analysis of the construction status of some smoking cessation clinics in China in 2016, 2018, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
 Gilbey V, Neumann B. Auricular acupuncture for smoking withdrawal. American Journal of Acupuncture 1977; 5:239-47.
Wang SM, Kain ZN, White P. Acupuncture analgesia: I. The scientific basis. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2018:106(2):602-610.
. Kang OS, Kim SY, Jahng GH, Kim H, Kim JW, Chung SY, et al. Neural substrates of acupuncture in the modulation of cravings induced by smoking-related visual cues: an fMRI study. Psychopharmacology. 2013; 228 (1):119-127.
 Wang YY, Liu Z, Chen F, Sun L, Wu Y, Yang JS, et al. Effects of acupuncture on craving after tobacco cessation: a resting-state fMRI study based on the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2019; 9(6):1118-1125.
 Wang JH, van Haselen R, Wang M, Yang GL, Zhang Z, Friedrich ME, et al. Acupuncture for smoking cessation: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 24 randomized controlled trials. Tob Induc Dis, 2019, 17: 48.
 White A R, Rampes H, Ernst E. Acupuncture for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2002; 10(2):CD000009.
 Cheng HM, Chung YC, Chen HH, Chang YH, Yeh ML. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acupoint stimulation on smoking cessation. Am J Chin Med. 2012; 40(3):429-42.
White AR, Rampes H, Liu JP, Stead LF, Campbell J. Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jan 23; 2014(1):CD000009.
.Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Hoffmann TC, Mulrow CD, et al. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ. 2021 Mar 29; 372:n71.
 Zhang YY, Yu ZY, Lan HD, Robinson R, Liu JP. Non-traditional acupuncture therapies for smoking cessation: a protocol of a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Inplasy protocol 202120054. doi: 10.37766/inplasy2021.2.0054.
 Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.0.2. In: Higgins JPT, Green S, eds. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008. https://training. cochrane.org/handbook/archive/v5.0.2/. Updated September, 2009. Accessed Jan 30, 2021.
 Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, et al. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ. 2008; 336(7650):924-926.
 Sun X, Briel M, Walter SD, Guyatt GH. Is a subgroup effect believable? Updating criteria to evaluate the credibility of subgroup analyses. BMJ. 2010 Mar 30; 340:c117.
 Lee E J. Auricular Acupressure and Positive Group Psychotherapy with Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2019; 33(4):214-221.
 Lee E J. The Effect of Auricular Acupressure and Positive Group Psychotherapy with Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation in Korean Adults. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2020, 34(2):113-120.
 Lee S, Park H. The Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Smoking Cessation for Male College Students. West J Nurs Res. 2017; 39(3):374-387.
 YK Wing，A Lee，ELY Wong, PC Leung，L Zhang，ESY Pang. Auricular Acupressure for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Medical Acupuncture. 2010; 22(4):265-271.
 White A R, Moody R C, Campbell J L. Acupressure for smoking cessation – a pilot study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2007; 7(1):8-8.
 Zhang AL, Di YM, Worsnop C, May BH, Xue CC. Ear Acupressure for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Evidence Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 2013, 2013:1-8.
Zhao L. Clinical observation of auricular point sticking combined with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the treatment of nicotine dependence, 2017, Shaanxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.
Li Y, Shen Tl, Cao LY, Zhang W, Wu QH. Clinical Study on 70 Cases of Smoking Cessation by pressing on auricular acupoints with Wang Bu liu Xing seeds. Jilin Journal of traditional Chinese Medicine. 2009; 029(006):505-506.
 Jiang B, Zuo F, Wu L, He Y, Chen ZS, Zheng JQ, et al. Effects of different interventions on smoking behavior in soldiers. Chin J Health Manag. 2011; 05(006):353-356.
Li LB, Sun JW, Xu DL, Shen LL, Chen XB, Yao AP, et al. The Approach of Ear Acupuncture Combining to Psychological Intervention with the Health Belief Mode in Community Tobacco Control. Zhejiang Preventive Medicine. 2011; 23(009):23-25.
 Chai X, Yang JS, Liu C, Chen F, Yuan GH, et al. Effect of the different smoking cessation regimens with acupuncture on smoking withdrawal and their influence factors: a multi-center randomized controlled trial. Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion. 2019; 32(12):1255-1261.
 Gilbey_V, Neumann_B. Auricular acupuncture for smoking withdrawal. American Journal of Acupuncture. 1977; 5: 239-47.
 Gillams_J, Lewith_GT, Machin_D. Acupuncture and group therapy in stopping smoking. Practitioner. 1984; 228:341-4.
 Leung_JP. Smoking cessation by auricular acupuncture and behavioral therapy. Psychologia. 1991; 34:177-87.
 Parker_LN, Mok_MS. The use of acupuncture for smoking withdrawal. American Journal of Acupuncture. 1977; 5:363-6.
 Wu TP, Chen FP, Liu JY, Lin MH, Hwang SJ. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Auricular Acupuncture in Smoking Cessation. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association. 2007; 70(8):331-338.
 Fritz DJ, Carney RM, Steinmeyer B, Ditson G, Hill N, Zee-Cheng J. The efficacy of auriculotherapy for smoking cessation: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of American Board of Family Medicine. 2013; 26(1):61-70.
 White AR, Resch K L, Ernst E. Randomized Trial of Acupuncture for Nicotine Withdrawal Symptoms. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1998; 158(20):2251-2255.
 Aycicegi-Dinn A, Dinn W. Efficacy of an alternative smoking cessation treatment. J Addict Dis. 2011; 30(4):368-81.
 Waite NR, Clough JB. A single-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a simple acupuncture treatment in the cessation of smoking. Br J Gen Pract.1998; 48(433):1487-90.
 Yeh ML, Chang CY, Chu NF, Chen HH. A six-week acupoint stimulation intervention for quitting smoking. Am J Chin Med. 2009; 37(5):829-36.
 Kerr_CM, Lowe_PB, Spielholz_NI. Low level laser for the stimulation of acupoints for smoking cessation: A double blind, placebo controlled randomized trial and semi structured interviews. Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2008; 86:46-51.
 Cai_Y, Zhao_C, Wong_SU, Zhang_L, Lim_SK. Laser acupuncture for adolescent smokers - a randomized double-blind controlled trial. American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2000; 25(3-4):443-9.
 Li HY, He W. Comparative study of acupoint catgut embedding and bupropion hydrochloride sustained-release tablets for tobacco dependence. Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion. 2019; 39(004):384-388.
 Zeng XJ, Chen ZQ, Wei YF, Zhuang HB, Wei JZ, Liu YS, et al. Evaluation of curative effect of catgut embedding at acupoints on tobacco dependence. Shenzhen Journal of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine. 2019; 252(23):61-63.
Cheng HM, Chung YC, Chen HH, Chang YH, Yeh ML. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acupoint stimulation on smoking cessation. Am J Chin Med. 2012; 40(3):429-42.
 Guo Q. The impact of improved intradermal needle combined with personalized education on patient compliance. Modern Distance Education of Chinese Medicine. 2019; 17(12):108-110.
 Cao HJ, Li X, Li XL, Ward L, Xie ZG, Hu H, et al. Factors influencing participant compliance in acupuncture trials: An in-depth interview study. PLoS One. 2020; 15 (4):e0231780.
 Herd N, Borland R, Hyland A. Predictors of smoking relapse by duration of abstinence: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Addiction. 2009; 104 (12):2088-2099.