1.Zhu J: T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, type 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and regulation of interleukin–4 (IL–4) and IL–13 production. Cytokine 2015, 75(1):14–24.
2.Punnonen J, Aversa G, Cocks BG, McKenzie AN, Menon S, Zurawski G, de Waal Malefyt R, de Vries JE: Interleukin 13 induces interleukin 4-independent IgG4 and IgE synthesis and CD23 expression by human B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993, 90(8):3730–3734.
3.Bochner BS, Klunk DA, Sterbinsky SA, Coffman RL, Schleimer RP: IL–13 selectively induces vascular cell adhesion molecule–1 expression in human endothelial cells. J Immunol 1995, 154(2):799–803.
4.Clutterbuck EJ, Hirst EM, Sanderson CJ: Human interleukin–5 (IL–5) regulates the production of eosinophils in human bone marrow cultures: comparison and interaction with IL–1, IL–3, IL–6, and GMCSF. Blood 1989, 73(6):1504–1512.
5.Horie S, Okubo Y, Hossain M, Sato E, Nomura H, Koyama S, Suzuki J, Isobe M, Sekiguchi M: Interleukin–13 but not interleukin–4 prolongs eosinophil survival and induces eosinophil chemotaxis. Intern Med 1997, 36(3):179–185.
6.Kondo M, Tamaoki J, Takeyama K, Isono K, Kawatani K, Izumo T, Nagai A: Elimination of IL–13 reverses established goblet cell metaplasia into ciliated epithelia in airway epithelial cell culture. Allergol Int 2006, 55(3):329–336.
7.Corren J: Role of interleukin–13 in asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2013, 13(5):415–420.
8.Humbert M, Menz G, Ying S, Corrigan CJ, Robinson DS, Durham SR, Kay AB: The immunopathology of extrinsic (atopic) and intrinsic (non-atopic) asthma: more similarities than differences. Immunol Today 1999, 20(11):528–533.
9.Zhu Z, Homer RJ, Wang Z, Chen Q, Geba GP, Wang J, Zhang Y, Elias JA: Pulmonary expression of interleukin–13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. J Clin Invest 1999, 103(6):779–788.
10.Mjosberg JM, Trifari S, Crellin NK, Peters CP, van Drunen CM, Piet B, Fokkens WJ, Cupedo T, Spits H: Human IL–25- and IL–33-responsive type 2 innate lymphoid cells are defined by expression of CRTH2 and CD161. Nat Immunol 2011, 12(11):1055–1062.
11.Divekar R, Kita H: Recent advances in epithelium-derived cytokines (IL–33, IL–25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) and allergic inflammation. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2015, 15(1):98–103.
12.Chung KF, Wenzel SE, Brozek JL, Bush A, Castro M, Sterk PJ, Adcock IM, Bateman ED, Bel EH, Bleecker ER et al: International ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma. European Respiratory Journal 2014, 43(2):343.
13.Braun CM, Huang SK, Bashian GG, Kagey-Sobotka A, Lichtenstein LM, Essayan DM: Corticosteroid modulation of human, antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 responses. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997, 100(3):400–407.
14.Jee YK, Gilmour J, Kelly A, Bowen H, Richards D, Soh C, Smith P, Hawrylowicz C, Cousins D, Lee T et al: Repression of interleukin–5 transcription by the glucocorticoid receptor targets GATA3 signaling and involves histone deacetylase recruitment. J Biol Chem 2005, 280(24):23243–23250.
15.Kaur M, Reynolds S, Smyth LJ, Simpson K, Hall S, Singh D: The effects of corticosteroids on cytokine production from asthma lung lymphocytes. Int Immunopharmacol 2014, 23(2):581–584.
16.Schwiebert LM, Beck LA, Stellato C, Bickel CA, Bochner BS, Schleimer RP, Schwiebert LA: Glucocorticosteroid inhibition of cytokine production: relevance to antiallergic actions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996, 97(1 Pt 2):143–152.
17.Naseer T, Minshall EM, Leung DY, Laberge S, Ernst P, Martin RJ, Hamid Q: Expression of IL–12 and IL–13 mRNA in asthma and their modulation in response to steroid therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997, 155(3):845–851.
18.Zhang X, Moilanen E, Kankaanranta H: Enhancement of human eosinophil apoptosis by fluticasone propionate, budesonide, and beclomethasone. Eur J Pharmacol 2000, 406(3):325–332.
19.Melis M, Siena L, Pace E, Gjomarkaj M, Profita M, Pirazzoli A, Todaro M, Stassi G, Bonsignore G, Vignola AM: Fluticasone induces apoptosis in peripheral T-lymphocytes: a comparison between asthmatic and normal subjects. Eur Respir J 2002, 19(2):257–266.
20.Brinkmann V, Kristofic C: Regulation by corticosteroids of Th1 and Th2 cytokine production in human CD4+ effector T cells generated from CD45RO- and CD45RO+ subsets. J Immunol 1995, 155(7):3322–3328.
21.Banuelos J, Shin S, Cao Y, Bochner BS, Morales-Nebreda L, Budinger GR, Zhou L, Li S, Xin J, Lingen MW et al: BCL–2 protects human and mouse Th17 cells from glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. Allergy 2016, 71(5):640–650.
22.Mojtabavi N, Dekan G, Stingl G, Epstein MM: Long-lived Th2 memory in experimental allergic asthma. J Immunol 2002, 169(9):4788–4796.
23.Woodland DL, Kohlmeier JE: Migration, maintenance and recall of memory T cells in peripheral tissues. Nature reviews Immunology 2009, 9(3):153–161.
24.(GINA) GIfA: Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. In.; 2012.
25.(GINA) GIfA: Difficult-to-Treat and Severe Asthma in Adolescents and Adult Patients Pocket Guide. In.; 2019.
26.Fardet L, Kassar A, Cabane J, Flahault A: Corticosteroid-induced adverse events in adults: frequency, screening and prevention. Drug Saf 2007, 30(10):861–881.
27.Rowe BH, Spooner CH, Ducharme FM, Bretzlaff JA, Bota GW: Corticosteroids for preventing relapse following acute exacerbations of asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007(3):CD000195.
28.Liu D, Ahmet A, Ward L, Krishnamoorthy P, Mandelcorn ED, Leigh R, Brown JP, Cohen A, Kim H: A practical guide to the monitoring and management of the complications of systemic corticosteroid therapy. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2013, 9(1):30.
29.Daley-Yates PT: Inhaled corticosteroids: potency, dose equivalence and therapeutic index. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2015, 80(3):372–380.
30.Shefrin AE, Goldman RD: Use of dexamethasone and prednisone in acute asthma exacerbations in pediatric patients. Can Fam Physician 2009, 55(7):704–706.
31.Altamimi S, Robertson G, Jastaniah W, Davey A, Dehghani N, Chen R, Leung K, Colbourne M: Single-dose oral dexamethasone in the emergency management of children with exacerbations of mild to moderate asthma. Pediatr Emerg Care 2006, 22(12):786–793.
32.Greenberg RA, Kerby G, Roosevelt GE: A comparison of oral dexamethasone with oral prednisone in pediatric asthma exacerbations treated in the emergency department. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2008, 47(8):817–823.
33.Hendeles L: Selecting a systemic corticosteroid for acute asthma in young children. J Pediatr 2003, 142(2 Suppl):S40–44.
34.Kravitz J, Dominici P, Ufberg J, Fisher J, Giraldo P: Two days of dexamethasone versus 5 days of prednisone in the treatment of acute asthma: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med 2011, 58(2):200–204.
35.Qureshi F, Zaritsky A, Poirier MP: Comparative efficacy of oral dexamethasone versus oral prednisone in acute pediatric asthma. J Pediatr 2001, 139(1):20–26.
36.Rehrer MW, Liu B, Rodriguez M, Lam J, Alter HJ: A Randomized Controlled Noninferiority Trial of Single Dose of Oral Dexamethasone Versus 5 Days of Oral Prednisone in Acute Adult Asthma. Ann Emerg Med 2016, 68(5):608–613.
37.The ENFUMOSA cross-sectional European multicentre study of the clinical phenotype of chronic severe asthma. European Network for Understanding Mechanisms of Severe Asthma. Eur Respir J 2003, 22(3):470–477.
38.Rowe BH, Villa-Roel C, Sivilotti ML, Lang E, Borgundvaag B, Worster A, Walker A, Ross S: Relapse after emergency department discharge for acute asthma. Acad Emerg Med 2008, 15(8):709–717.
39.Vrieze A, Postma DS, Kerstjens HA: Perimenstrual asthma: a syndrome without known cause or cure. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003, 112(2):271–282.
40.Malassine A, Frendo JL, Evain-Brion D: A comparison of placental development and endocrine functions between the human and mouse model. Hum Reprod Update 2003, 9(6):531–539.
41.Murphy VE, Gibson PG, Smith R, Clifton VL: Asthma during pregnancy: mechanisms and treatment implications. Eur Respir J 2005, 25(4):731–750.
42.Engler JB, Kursawe N, Solano ME, Patas K, Wehrmann S, Heckmann N, Lühder F, Reichardt HM, Arck PC, Gold SM et al: Glucocorticoid receptor in T cells mediates protection from autoimmunity in pregnancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017, 114(2):E181-E190.
43.Bredo G, Storie J, Shrestha Palikhe N, Davidson C, Adams A, Vliagoftis H, Cameron L: Interleukin‐25 initiates Th2 differentiation of human CD4(+) T cells and influences expression of its own receptor. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease 2015, 3(4):455–468.
44.Czock D, Keller F, Rasche FM, Häussler U: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of systemically administered glucocorticoids. Clin Pharmacokinet 2005, 44(1):61–98.
45.Kanagalingam T, Solomon L, Vijeyakumaran M, Palikhe NS, Vliagoftis H, Cameron L: IL–2 modulates Th2 cell responses to glucocorticosteroid: A cause of persistent type 2 inflammation? Immun Inflamm Dis 2019.
46.Srivastava MD, Thomas A, Srivastava BI, Check JH: Expression and modulation of progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF) and innate immune factors in human leukemia cell lines by progesterone and mifepristone. Leuk Lymphoma 2007, 48(8):1610–1617.
47.Raghupathy R, Al-Mutawa E, Al-Azemi M, Makhseed M, Azizieh F, Szekeres-Bartho J: Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) modulates cytokine production by lymphocytes from women with recurrent miscarriage or preterm delivery. J Reprod Immunol 2009, 80(1–2):91–99.
48.Baughman G, Wiederrecht GJ, Chang F, Martin MM, Bourgeois S: Tissue distribution and abundance of human FKBP51, and FK506-binding protein that can mediate calcineurin inhibition. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1997, 232(2):437–443.
49.Vermeer H, Hendriks-Stegeman BI, van der Burg B, van Buul-Offers SC, Jansen M: Glucocorticoid-induced increase in lymphocytic FKBP51 messenger ribonucleic acid expression: a potential marker for glucocorticoid sensitivity, potency, and bioavailability. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003, 88(1):277–284.
50.Roberts G: Immunotherapy, asthma and community allergic reactions to food. Clin Exp Allergy 2016, 46(6):780–781.
51.Heidari N, Miller AV, Hicks MA, Marking CB, Harada H: Glucocorticoid-mediated BIM induction and apoptosis are regulated by Runx2 and c-Jun in leukemia cells. Cell Death Dis 2012, 3:e349.
52.Castro M, Bloch SR, Jenkerson MV, DeMartino S, Hamilos DL, Cochran RB, Zhang XE, Wang H, Bradley JP, Schechtman KB et al: Asthma exacerbations after glucocorticoid withdrawal reflects T cell recruitment to the airway. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004, 169(7):842–849.
53.Belda J, Parameswaran K, Lemiere C, Kamada D, O’Byrne PM, Hargreave FE: Predictors of loss of asthma control induced by corticosteroid withdrawal. Can Respir J 2006, 13(3):129–133.
54.Troy NM, Hollams EM, Holt PG, Bosco A: Differential gene network analysis for the identification of asthma-associated therapeutic targets in allergen-specific T-helper memory responses. BMC Med Genomics 2016, 9:9.
55.Volkmann N, Marassi FM, Newmeyer DD, Hanein D: The rheostat in the membrane: BCL–2 family proteins and apoptosis. Cell Death Differ 2014, 21(2):206–215.
56.Cang S, Iragavarapu C, Savooji J, Song Y, Liu D: ABT–199 (venetoclax) and BCL–2 inhibitors in clinical development. J Hematol Oncol 2015, 8:129.
57.Tian BP, Xia LX, Bao ZQ, Zhang H, Xu ZW, Mao YY, Cao C, Che LQ, Liu JK, Li W et al: Bcl–2 inhibitors reduce steroid-insensitive airway inflammation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2017, 140(2):418–430.
58.Huang T, Hazen M, Shang Y, Zhou M, Wu X, Yan D, Lin Z, Solon M, Luis E, Ngu H et al: Depletion of major pathogenic cells in asthma by targeting CRTh2. JCI Insight 2016, 1(7):e86689.
59.Gauvreau GM, O’Byrne PM, Boulet LP, Wang Y, Cockcroft D, Bigler J, FitzGerald JM, Boedigheimer M, Davis BE, Dias C et al: Effects of an anti-TSLP antibody on allergen-induced asthmatic responses. N Engl J Med 2014, 370(22):2102–2110.
60.Gonem S, Berair R, Singapuri A, Hartley R, Laurencin MFM, Bacher G, Holzhauer B, Bourne M, Mistry V, Pavord ID et al: Fevipiprant, a prostaglandin D2 receptor 2 antagonist, in patients with persistent eosinophilic asthma: a single-centre, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med 2016, 4(9):699–707.
61.Guo W, Li P, Zhao G, Fan H, Hu Y, Hou Y: Glucocorticoid receptor mediates the effect of progesterone on uterine natural killer cells. Am J Reprod Immunol 2012, 67(6):463–473.
62.McMurray RW, Wilson JG, Bigler L, Xiang L, Lagoo A: Progesterone inhibits glucocorticoid-induced murine thymocyte apoptosis. Int J Immunopharmacol 2000, 22(11):955–965.
63.Volmer T, Effenberger T, Trautner C, Buhl R: Consequences of long-term oral corticosteroid therapy and its side-effects in severe asthma in adults: a focused review of the impact data in the literature. Eur Respir J 2018, 52(4).
64.Prazma CM, Wenzel S, Barnes N, Douglass JA, Hartley BF, Ortega H: Characterisation of an OCS-dependent severe asthma population treated with mepolizumab. Thorax 2014, 69(12):1141–1142.
65.Salter M, Biggadike K, Matthews JL, West MR, Haase MV, Farrow SN, Uings IJ, Gray DW: Pharmacological properties of the enhanced-affinity glucocorticoid fluticasone furoate in vitro and in an in vivo model of respiratory inflammatory disease. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007, 293(3):L660–667.
66.MacLean Scott E, Solomon LA, Davidson C, Storie J, Palikhe NS, Cameron L: Activation of Th2 cells downregulates CRTh2 through an NFAT1 mediated mechanism. PLoS One 2018, 13(7):e0199156.