A fundamental challenge for disordered solids is predicting macroscopic yield from the microscopic arrangements of constituent particles. Yield is accompanied by a sudden and large increase in energy dissipation due to the onset of plastic rearrangements. This suggests that one path to understanding bulk rheology is to map particle configurations to their mode of deformation. Here, we perform laboratory experiments and numerical simulations that are designed to do just that: 2D dense colloidal systems are subjected to oscillatory shear, and particle trajectories and bulk rheology are measured. We quantify particle microstructure using excess entropy. Results reveal a direct relation between excess entropy and energy dissipation, that is insensitive to the nature of interactions among particles. We use this relation to build a physically-informed model that connects rheology to microstructure. Our findings suggest a framework for tailoring the rheological response of disordered materials by tuning microstructural properties.