China is the largest producer of livestock globally, and associated nutrient losses and greenhouse gases emission have substantially affected the environment and human health. Here we present a first detailed assessment of livestock systems using over 480,000 feedlot surveys over the period from 2007 to 2017 across China. Results indicate that China produced more livestock protein with fewer animal numbers and total pollution impacts through better breeding and feeding in large-scale feedlots over this period. Hotspots of production can be observed across the North China Plain, Northeastern China and Sichuan Basin. The Clean Water Act reduced manure nutrient losses to water by one third, while slightly increasing methane emissions over the study period. Integrated abatement measures could reduce more than half of livestock pollution in 2050, with benefits of 30 billion US dollar (USD) due to avoided human health, ecosystem and climate costs with only 6 billion USD abatement cost.