J. Zhang, B. Xie, and K. Hashimoto, “Current status of potential therapeutic candidates for the COVID-19 crisis,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 87. Academic Press Inc., pp. 59–73, Jul. 01, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.046.
 “COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University,” Apr. 20, 2021. .
 S. Rezaei et al., “Efficacy and safety of Tocilizumab in severe and critical COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Expert Review of Clinical Immunology, 2021, doi: 10.1080/1744666X.2021.1908128.
 H. Esakandari, M. Nabi-Afjadi, J. Fakkari-Afjadi, N. Farahmandian, S. M. Miresmaeili, and E. Bahreini, “A comprehensive review of COVID-19 characteristics,” Biological Procedures Online, vol. 22, no. 1. BioMed Central Ltd, Aug. 04, 2020, doi: 10.1186/s12575-020-00128-2.
 The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team, “The Epidemiological Characteristics of an Outbreak of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) — China, 2020.” Accessed: Apr. 20, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://globalhandwashing.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/COVID-19.pdf.
 O. Hermine, X. Mariette, P. L. Tharaux, M. Resche-Rigon, R. Porcher, and P. Ravaud, “Effect of Tocilizumab vs Usual Care in Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19 and Moderate or Severe Pneumonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” JAMA Internal Medicine, vol. 181, no. 1, pp. 32–40, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6820.
 G. Grasselli et al., “Risk Factors Associated with Mortality among Patients with COVID-19 in Intensive Care Units in Lombardy, Italy,” JAMA Internal Medicine, vol. 180, no. 10, pp. 1345–1355, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3539.
 G. Grasselli et al., “Baseline Characteristics and Outcomes of 1591 Patients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 Admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy Region, Italy,” JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 323, no. 16, pp. 1574–1581, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.5394.
 C. Huang et al., “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China,” The Lancet, vol. 395, no. 10223, pp. 497–506, Feb. 2020, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.
 L. Lu, H. Zhang, D. J. Dauphars, and Y. W. He, “A Potential Role of Interleukin 10 in COVID-19 Pathogenesis,” Trends in Immunology, vol. 42, no. 1. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 3–5, Jan. 01, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.it.2020.10.012.
 X. Chen et al., “Detectable serum SARS-CoV-2 viral load (RNAaemia) is closely correlated with drastically elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) level in critically ill COVID-19 patients.”
 J. H. Stone et al., “Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 383, no. 24, pp. 2333–2344, Dec. 2020, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa2028836.
 C. Salama et al., “Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 Pneumonia,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 384, no. 1, pp. 20–30, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa2030340.
 C. Salvarani et al., “Effect of Tocilizumab vs Standard Care on Clinical Worsening in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” JAMA Internal Medicine, vol. 181, no. 1, pp. 24–31, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6615.
 I. O. Rosas et al., “Tocilizumab in Hospitalized Patients with Severe Covid-19 Pneumonia,” New England Journal of Medicine, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.1056/nejmoa2028700.
 REMAP-CAP Investigators, “Interleukin-6 Receptor Antagonists in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19,” New England Journal of Medicine, p. NEJMoa2100433, Feb. 2021, doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2100433.
 V. C. Veiga et al., “Effect of tocilizumab on clinical outcomes at 15 days in patients with severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019: Randomised controlled trial,” The BMJ, vol. 372, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1136/bmj.n84.
 RECOVERY Collaborative Group, “Tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with 3 COVID-19 (RECOVERY): preliminary results of a 4 randomised, controlled, open-label, platform tria,” Accessed: May 12, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.02.11.21249258v1.
 The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M60 Performance Standards for Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts, 2nd Edition 2020 edition, Accessed Sep. 02, 2020.
 F. A. S. Aleidan et al., “Incidence and risk factors of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infection in intensive care units: a matched case–control study,” Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, vol. 19, no. 3, Mar. 2021, doi: 10.1080/14787210.2020.1822736.
 ICD - ICD-10-CM - International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification, Accessed Jan. 29, 2021.
 C.-Y. Lin, “Acute kidney injury classification: AKIN and RIFLE criteria in critical patients,” World Journal of Critical Care Medicine, vol. 1, no. 2, p. 40, 2012, doi: 10.5492/wjccm.v1.i2.40.
 Y. Gokhale et al., “Tocilizumab improves survival in severe COVID-19 pneumonia with persistent hypoxia: a retrospective cohort study with follow-up from Mumbai, India,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 21, no. 1, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.1186/s12879-021-05912-3.
 L. Quartuccio et al., “Profiling COVID-19 pneumonia progressing into the cytokine storm syndrome: Results from a single Italian Centre study on tocilizumab versus standard of care,” Journal of Clinical Virology, vol. 129, Aug. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104444.
 National institute of Health, The COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel’s Statement on the Use of Tocilizumab for the Treatment of COVID-19. NIH , 2021.
 Saudi Ministry of Health, “Saudi MoH Protocol for Patients Suspected of Confirmed with COVID-19 Supportive care and antiviral treatment of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection (Version 2.8),” 2021. [Online]. Available: https://covid19.cdc.gov.sa/pr.
 L. M. Kimmig et al., “IL6 inhibition in critically ill COVID-19 patients is associated with increased secondary infections,” medRxiv. medRxiv, Sep. 12, 2020, doi: 10.1101/2020.05.15.20103531.
 E. C. Somers et al., “Tocilizumab for treatment of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19.”
 I. M. Tleyjeh, Z. Kashour, M. Riaz, L. Hassett, V. C. Veiga, and T. Kashour, “Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients: A living systematic Review and meta-analysis: first update,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Apr. 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2021.04.019.