One hundred and two patients who were diagnosed with senile cataract at the Department of Health Management Center, the first affiliated hospital of USTC (Anhui Provincial Hospital), were examined with OCT from January 1, 2019, to July 31, 2019. Among them, 49 were male and 53 were female, and the age range was 61–89 years. Finally, 28 cases were designated as positive and 74 cases were designated as negative for maculopathy. Subjects were recruited and provided written informed consent with approval from the Ethics Committee of The First Affiliated Hospital of University of Sciences and Technology of China.
2.2.1 General characteristics
The following general characteristics of the participants were obtained by a general physician or ophthalmologist: age, sex, physical examination (mode: organization/individual), uncorrected or corrected visual acuity using an international standard visual acuity chart (uncorrected or corrected visual acuity <1.0 indicated abnormal visual acuity), body mass index (BMI; BMI <18.5 kg/m2 was considered thin, 18.5 kg/m2 ≤ BMI <24.0 kg/m2 was considered normal, 24.0 kg/m2 ≤BMI <28.0 kg/m2 was considered overweight, and BMI ≥28.0 kg/m2 was considered obese), fasting blood glucose (normal range 3.90–6.10 mmol/l), triglycerides (normal range 0.00–1.70 mmol/l), total cholesterol (normal range 0.00–5.18 mmol/l), blood pressure, and presence or absence of diabetes.
2.2.2 Ophthalmologic examination
Using ophthalmic slit-lamp microscopy to identify cataracts and eye types (binocular, oculus dexter or oculus sinister), a direct ophthalmoscope examination was performed to exclude optic neuropathy, myopic retinopathy, and the vitreous opacity. The fundus was not observed.
2.2.3 Ocular OCT examination
An OSE-2000 Optical Coherence Tomography scanner produced by Shenzhen Slton Technology Co, Ltd., was used in the examinations.
(i) Preparation for the procedure
The device was operated by a professionally trained nurse. To begin the procedure, the instrument power was turned on, the OCT software was started, and the height of the instrument was adjusted. The participant was advised to sit directly opposite the instrument. They were told to place their jaw naturally on the mandibular supporter, and their forehead against the front bracket after their information was verified.
(ii) Image collection
The scanning region was selected, which included the macular area, using the six-line scanning procedure. The right eye was examined first and then the left eye.
(iii) Image processing
The OCT images that were clear and reflected the maculopathy were selected.
(iv) Image printing
The OCT images were viewed for confirmation and then printed. Printed images were submitted to the ophthalmologist for assessment.
18.104.22.168 Interpretation of the OCT report
Normal macular OCT results included the following: an optical interface was formed between the vitreous cavity and the inner retinal boundary membrane, and an optical section was formed between the retinal nerve epithelium and pigment epithelium. Abnormal macular OCT results included: macular epiretinal membrane, macular hemorrhages, pigment epithelium or nerve epithelium detachment, macular edema, macular hole, macular splitting, and macular atrophy and thinning.
2.3 Quality control
All personnel involved in the study were trained and had relevant professional knowledge. Participants were strictly selected according to the exclusion and inclusion criteria. The initial data were reviewed one by one to ensure accuracy.
2.4 Statistical analysis
The study factors were grouped according to whether the participant had maculopathy. SPSS 23.0 was used to analyze the data. Counting data were expressed as rates (%). The different groups were analyzed by univariate analysis with a c2 test. All possible factors affecting maculopathy were included in a logistic regression analysis to determine the mixed effects of various factors on maculopathy. p<0.05 indicated statistical significance.