3.1. Vulnerability and Climate-related hazards exposure
The impact of climate-related hazards in Burkina Faso is closely linked to the vulnerability of the population, the country's economy and the low capacity to adapt to these natural risks (Bank 2011).
Indeed, the food production is function of spatio-temporal rainfall distribution pattern in most of African country(Bekoe and Logah 2013). This is the case in Burkina Faso where livelihoods depend on rain-fed agriculture and where food security is threatened and vulnerable to unstable rainfall.(Lacombe et al. 2012).
Infrastructure like dam, and drainage system are not risk prone standards and there are often informal settlers in the floodplain, area vulnerable to disasters. In addition, Burkina-Faso has degraded soils and poor in nutrients in most regions, these soils have a low water retention capacity. During dry season, temperature spike, dust storms occur, and food supplies and yields are affected when rainfall decrease. Rivers are intermittent, apart the Mouhoun river in the western area of the country (Bank 2011).
In Burkina Faso, floods and droughts are recurrent and have consequences for the economy, livelihoods and life. About 2.1 million people suffer from chronic food insecurity and 61.7% of the population is exposed to multiple dangers (Carrera 2018).
||Trend for 3 years
Many kinds of drought exist, the meteorological drought due to deficit of precipitation, the soil moisture drought and the hydrological drought referring to the deficit of streamflow, and groundwater. But they are all due to little precipitation and evapotranspiration([CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).
The delayed rainfall and extreme drought are exacerbated by the climate change phenomenon, and West-Africa is the region more vulnerable to drought because of climate change(Giesen et al.).
As a slow onset and complex natural hazard with adverse effects on the environment, society and the economy, drought is considered to displace more people and cause more deaths than other natural hazards(Mohamed Bazza et al. 2015).
In fact, a third of the African population lives in drought-prone areas and is vulnerable to the consequences of this natural disaster([CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).
Since early 1970’s, Burkina-Faso has experienced a “quasi-drought” conditions (Carrera 2018). According to the data of EM-DAT, there were 11 events of drought, since 1960 in the country (figure 1).
Drought is expected to increase in frequency, duration and spatial expansion and will expose many people in the country to food insecurity (Mohamed Bazza et al. 2015).
Continuing urbanization, land use practices, social and political barriers and climate change are factors that increase the risk of flooding (Arnell and Gosling 2016).
Heavy rainfall mainly triggers floods, but the worsening is due to the occupation of at-risk areas, lack of rainwater management, inadequate maintenance of dams, non-compliance with planning regulations and poor land use management practices (Mathon et al. 2002).
Large populated cities like the capital Ouagadougou and the second main city Bobo-Dioulasso face frequent flooding. But also the northern region of the country where soil degradation is due to livestock and the southwest region which has the highest annual rainfall (Niang 2006).
According to EM-DAT data, flood is the natural disaster which cause the most direct death in the country. The number of events is increasing, we have 20 events from 1960 to 2018 and more people are affected by river floods than other types of floods.
There is an upward trend and positive correlation. The number of deaths grows with the number of affected people
3.4. Climate variability and climate change in Burkina- Faso
According to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; the Sahel region will experience climate change in the 21st century. Variations in rainfall and temperature are expected to increase due to climate change ([CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).
The unpredictability of rainfall over time and space and the increase in temperatures are expected to increase, as well as the intensity and frequency of extreme weather, including drought and floods in sub-Saharan African countries. (Case 2006; Kotir 2011).
The analysis of the climatic trends of Burkina-Faso, show a displacement of isotherms and isohyets from the north to the south of the country with a disturbance of seasonal cycle. There is a real decrease in rainfall and increase in average temperature (M. 2017). An increase in average rainfall for wet days, an increase of maximum consecutive dry days and decrease of maximum consecutive wet and dry days, are noticed in the change of climatic pattern (De Longueville et al. 2016).
According to the country’s estimates, by 2025 there will be an increase of 0.8ºc in average temperature and an increase of 1.7ºC by 2050. Concerning the rainfall, there will be a slight decrease projection by 2025 of -3.4% and -7.3% by 2050 (Burkina Faso - government 2009).
The seasonal and inter-annual variability of the climate, and the climate change impact like the decrease in rainfall and the increase of temperatures (with potential risk of bush and forest fire), will have consequence on natural disaster venue, food security and the economy of the country(Burkina Faso - government 2009).
3.5. National disaster management and response
Many institutions are responsible for disaster management and response for the country. These national institutions are involved in the prevention, monitoring, climate information and response delivery.
- The National Agency for Meteorology (ANAM): National office responsible for the collection, production and delivery of weather and climate services (ANAM report).
- The Directorate General for Water Resources ( DGRE): National hydrological office responsible for information, and monitoring of groundwater and surface water.
- The Directorate General for Civil Protection ( DGPC) office in charge of national fire brigade and delivery of first emergency aid.
- The National Commission for Emergency and Rehabilitation Aid ( CONASUR), an interdepartmental unit whose mission is to raise awareness and educate people about disaster response and prevention. This commission provides assistance during an emergency event and the distribution of materials to help people restore their normalcy before the disaster (CONASUR report).
The CONASUR is chaired by the Ministry of Women, National Solidarity and Family and gathers representative of 13 sectors: food security, shelter, protection, infrastructures, health, nutrition, water and hygiene, logistic and transport, climate service, communication and education.
Legal framework and disaster management
To cope with disaster risks, the government of Burkina-Faso has designed many political instruments, framework and laws.
In 2014, le country has adopted the law nº 012-2014/AN from April 22-2014 which legislates on humanitarian crises and disaster response but also on risk management and prevention ([CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]).
The policy instruments mostly concern action plan and strategies on climate change and adaptation, information and early warning system, food security and response.
Burkina-Faso is signatory of the Hyogo framework for action. And the country has a national framework for climate services, this framework deals with climate-related disaster management though climate service. It involves the improvement of weather forecast for fast onset disaster like floods and seasonal forecast for latent disaster like drought. But also involves the establishment of meteorological early warning system and the training disaster stakeholders in the use of meteorological information(M. 2017).
In 2009, a multi-risk contingency plan was developed and revised in 2010. This contingency plan is a framework of multi-sectorial integrated approach about preparedness and emergency response(Burkina Faso - government 2009).
This contingency plan:
- States role between different national technical institutions and humanitarian stakeholders
- Enhances coordination of action of different sectors.
- Identifies and mitigates urgent risks.
- Gives an integrate framework on emergency risks.
- Keeps updated strategies for preparedness, prevention and response in national plan and programs.
- Manages the intervention to reduce the delay and then reduce numbers of victims.
With this plan, the interventions are at three levels:
- The pre-disaster level by managing intervention structure for rapid intervention.
- The disaster level, when the crisis occurs by saving victim life, coordinated assistance for first aid, assessment of damage, and information management.
- The post-disaster phase, period for rehabilitation and rebuilding for a return to normalcy.