To investigate the dynamic evolution law of roof deformation in the continuous mining and continuous backfilling (CMCB) method, the alternating bearing characteristics of coal and the backfilling body were obtained through statistical analysis. On the basis of two-step mining and the elastic foundation beam theory, the mechanical model of the entire stage roof deformation was established, and the dynamic change law of roof settlement was obtained. On the basis of the working face of CMCB in Haoyuan Coal Mine, the deformation rule of the two-step mining roof was analyzed. In the first stage of mining, the coal pillar is the main bearing structure, the deformation of the roof is small, and the distribution is wavy. In the second stage, the backfilling body gradually becomes the main bearing structure, and the deformation of the roof significantly increases and exhibits a U-shaped distribution. The results obtained by numerical simulations reveal that four-step mining increases the width of the coal pillars and the roof deformation is effectively controlled during the filling process. After the filling is completed, the roof remains stable under the support of the filling body under different filling modes; therefore, its final settlement remains consistent. Through field measurement, it was found that the CMCB method can effectively control the roof subsidence in Haoyuan Coal Mine.