As we all know, the drought occurrence indicates that there is no rainfall or little rainfall in a certain period. However, the no or little rainfall does not mean that the droughts must be occur, and the occurrence of droughts shows a certain lag in the different areas. This paper analyzes the characteristics of watershed lagged effects and human activities in Central Guizhou of China (CGC) by the Lagged Index (LI) and Landscape Index (LI) based on the land use data, rainfall and runoff data during the periods of 1971–2016.The results show that ①the influence difference of the same land use type on the lagged intensity was particularly significant(P < 0.001)in the different ages (1970s-2010s). Among them, it gradually increased for the impacts of the wood land, grass land and cultivated land on the lagged intensity with the increasing of ages, and reached the maximum in the 2000s, and reached the maximum in the 2000s, while it did not change significantly for the water land and construction land.②The impact of land use type transfer on watershed lagged effects is particularly significant (P < 0.001).Among them, it gradually increases for the wood land transfer with the prolongation of lagged periods, and reaches the maximum for the construction land transfer in the lag-1 period (Xt−1), and is not significant for the rest type transfer.③The impact differences of the principal components (Zs) on watershed lagged effects are particularly significant for the morphological characteristics of land use types in different lagged periods (Xt−0-Xt−3), and different ages (1970s-2010s), as well as the different time scales (1–12 months). Among them, it is the largest for the impact of grass land and water land on watershed lagged intensity, and gradually increases with the increasing of time scales (the maximum in the 9-month scale), followed by the wood land and cultivated land with the maximum in the 9- and 6- month scales, respectively. And it is the smallest for the construction land, and gradually increases with the increasing of time scales (the maximum in the 9-month scale).