To explore the relationship between the cutting vibration and the cutting load of a single pick, this paper studied a new method for a single pick cutting rock load identification. This paper improved the low accuracy problem of the regularization method in the inverse process of frequency response function in the traditional load identification method by introducing a filter operator. By combining the inverse pseudo excitation method and the improved regularization method, the identification of the load dependent on the vibration signal was realized. A single pick cutting rock test equipment was built, which could simulate the actual working conditions of pick cutting rock in underground or tunnel. By changing cutting speed, cutting angle, cutting line spacing and cutting depth of the single pick, the change trends of real cutting load and identification load were obtained. The load identification method proposed in this paper was consistent with the change trend of the real load under the single pick cutting state. Therefore, the method had good recognition accuracy and the maximum load recognition error was 17.35%. Compared with the traditional load identification method, the identification error was reduced by a maximum of 1.98%. This method can identify the cutting load of single pick and modify the morbidity problem of frequency response function matrix. The method has a better recognition effect on the cutting load of the pick than the traditional recognition method. The research could benefit for the design of the cutting system and the arrangement of the pick on the coal mine or tunneling machinery.