Traditionally anthelmintics are considered as major part of the strategies for the control of helminth in grazing animals for the prevention of losses of production. Use of same, unselective and having similar mode of action anthelmintics for many years cause resistance in animals (Coles and Roush 1992, Islam et al. 2018). Therefore in this study four common and one herbal anthelmintics drugs were used to evaluate the efficacy and anthelmintics resistance in caprine and ovine. To the best of our knowledge this was the first study in which efficacy of anthelminics were determined in goats and sheep. The main finding of this study was (a) the overall efficacy of closantal was higher in caprine, however in ovine closantel and ferula asafetida had higher drug efficacy irrespective of age and gender. (b) The EPG reduction was higher in closantel in both caprine and ovine, while ferula asafetida significantly reduced EPG in ovine than caprine.
The result of the current study showed that in caprine the EPG reduction was highest at 7th and 14th days post treatment in colantal than other anthelmintics, therefore the efficacy of closantal was 100% than other anthelmintics against h. contortus. Our result had in agreement with previous result that closantal had higher efficacy and low anthelminitics resistant in goats (Das, Dixit, Nath, Agrawal and Dongre 2015, Uppal et al. 1993) who also found Closantel to be 100 % effective against Haemonchus contortus in goat by using 10mg/kg body weight of medicine. The (Dixit, Das, Dixit and Sharma 2019) found that closantel is 95.64% effective against H. contortus.
The reason of higher efficacy of closantal against H. contartus might be high bounding properties to blood protein that is important for oxidative phosphorylation in parasites, which decreased the adenosine triphosphate and nicotinamide in the mitochondria, therefore availablily of energy lower for parasites (Lanusse et al. 2009). However some previous studies observed that anthelminitics developed resistant against closantal (Baihaqi et al. 2019, Chandrawathani et al. 2013, Premaalatha et al. 2014). The result of current study showed that the efficacy of ferula asafetida was 70% that is lowered than closantal and higher than other anthelminitics. (Singh et al. 2016) reported that 100% efficacy of aqueous extract of Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Seeds against H. contartus. (Akhtar et al. 2000) observed that different medicinal plants had high efficacy against anthelminitcs in goats of Indo-Pakistan. The high efficacy of these medicinal plants might be the high contents of phenolic flavonoid and tannin that is improved the immune defense system of host to destroy the parasites (Atoui et al. 2005, Tiwary et al. 2007). The other reason of low anthelminitcs resistant is the high concentration of cooper and zinic in these plants, which is high wormicidal and indirect role in improving immune defence of host (Burke et al. 2005, Chartier et al. 2001, Waruiru et al. 2004). We found high anthelminitics resistant against albendazol, oxfendazol and ivermectin, that is in agreements with previous reports (Kumar Jaiswal et al. 2013, Maharshi et al. 2011, Uppal, Yadav and Bhushan 1993).
The finding of current study showed that closantal and ferula asafetida had higher efficacy against H. contortus in sheep. Our result in agreements with previous studies that closantal had high efficacy against H. contortus and other strongylieds in sheep (Westers, Jones-Bitton, Menzies, Van Leeuwen, Poljak and Peregrine 2016) and merino sheep (Kadam et al. 2009, Shahana 2013, Tramboo et al. 2017). observed 100% and 98% respectively efficacy of closantal against H. contortus at 8th and 14th days of post treatment in Indian sheep. The higher efficacy of closantal against H. contortus may be due to lowered population of H. contortus eggs and improvement of immune defense of sheep. In literature ivermectin had higher efficacy (99%) against strongly and H. contortus in sheep, when injected subcutaneously (Canga et al. 2009, Westers, Jones-Bitton, Menzies, Van Leeuwen, Poljak and Peregrine 2016). The reason of higher efficacy of subcutaneous ivermectin might be higher bioavailability of ivermectin to plasma. The recent review of literature reports that aqueous extract of herbal plants had higher efficacy against strongly And H. contortus (de Souza Chagas and da Silva Vieira 2007, Dongre et al. 2015).
The reason of higher efficacy of herbal plants due to increased quantity of cooper and zinic that is lethal for the growth and production worm eggs (Chartier, Soubirac, Pors, Silvestre, Hubert, Couquet and Cabaret 2001, Waruiru, Mutunu and Otieno 2004). Similar finding have reported by (41,50) that suppimentation of copper and zinic had significant reduction of strongly eggs in host. In the current study albendazol, oxfendazol and ivermectin had lowered efficacy. Our finding has in agreement with previous reports that lowered efficacy of albendaol and fenbendazol due to higher anthelminitics resistance in small ruminants (Baihaqi, Widiyono and Nurcahyo 2019, Shahardar et al. 2014, Westers, Jones-Bitton, Menzies, Van Leeuwen, Poljak and Peregrine 2016). The higher anthelminitics resistance was due to higher frequency of deworming and use of insufficient dose of anthelminitics (Sissay et al. 2006).
The finding of current study revealed that no significant difference in age and gender wise efficacy of anthelminitics in both goats and sheep. This might be due to similar improvements of immune defense system against H. contortus in host. The reducation of eggs of H. contortus was significantly higher in closantal and ferula asafetida in both goats and sheep regardless of age and gender. Our finding support the previous findings that higher reduction of eggs in closantal and plants extract and leaves (Dixit, Das, Dixit and Sharma 2019, Nabukenya et al. 2014, Tramboo, Shahardar, Allaie, Wani and Abbas 2017). Albendazol, oxfendazol and oraly ivermectin had lowered reduction of eggs in the current study. These might be due to low availability of drug in the plasma that might be more expression of resistan genes (Coles et al. 2006, Kenyon and Jackson 2012, Van den Brom et al. 2015). A longer term study would be necessary to fully evaluate the resistance genes in the H. contortus.