Runoff prediction has an important guiding role in the planning and management of regional water resources, flood prevention and drought resistance, and can effectively predict the risk of changes in regional water resources. This study used 12 runoff prediction methods to predict the runoff of four hydrological stations in the Hanjiang River Basin (HRB). Through the MCMC method, the HRB runoff probability conversion model from low to high (high to low) is constructed. The study found that the runoff of the HRB had a decreasing trend. In the mid-1980s, the runoff had a significant decreasing trend. The smoother the runoff changes, the easier it is to make accurate prediction. On the whole, the QS-MFM, MFM, MA-MFM, CES and DNN methods have strong generalization ability and can more accurately predict the runoff of the HRB. The Logistic model can accurately simulate the change of runoff status in the HRB. Among them, the HLT station has the fastest conversion rate of drought and flood, and the flow that generates floods is 6 times that of drought. The smaller the basin area, the larger the gap between drought and flood discharge. Overall, this research provides important technical support for the prediction of change in water resources and the transition probability from drought to flood in the HRB.