The sustainable development of China's economy has brought about a large increase in energy consumption of residents, especially in rural areas. Nowadays, the per capita energy consumption in rural areas has exceeded the urban residents. Therefore, it is of great significance to pay attention to the energy consumption of rural households in order to realize the harmonious development of energy and economy in China. Based on the survey data of rural households in central and eastern China, this paper uses the method of CLAD estimation of Tobit model to study the influencing factors and structural characteristics of rural households' energy consumption, so as to analyze how to deal with the rapid growth of rural energy consumption and optimize the rural energy structure. The results show that the energy structure of rural households is unreasonable, rural families are using more traditional and inferior cooking heating energy, and there are some differences in different regions; Family characteristics, family wealth and energy conservation initiative have an impact on total energy consumption and different types of energy. Increasing income, education level, electrical appliances quantity and energy conservation initiative are conducive to optimizing the energy structure of the family and promoting the transformation of energy structure.