Study area and Study Period
Study was conducted at Debre Tabor University. Debre Tabor University is found at Debre Tabor Town, south Gondar zone, Amhara Region which is located 666 km away from Addis Ababa capital city of Ethiopia. Based on the 2007 national census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia (CSA), the total population of town 55596. Study was conducted from April 1 to July 5, 2019.
Study Design: Institutional based cross sectional study was conducted
All regular students at Debre Tabor University, College of health science
All selected regular students during data collection period
All regular students who are attending university of health Science College
Extension, night and summer students
Peer-pressure and tension and parental modeling
Substance: Any non-medical drugs used by study subjects such as alcohol, chat, tobacco, cannabis, heroin, cocaine, and marijuana to alter their mood or behavior.
Abuse: Inappropriate excessive or habitual use of drugs and psychoactive substances especially when resulting addiction.
Substance use: Use of at least one of the substances (alcohol, Chat, cigarettes, and illicit drugs) in an individual’s life time to alter mood or behavior.
Substance abuse: Is inappropriate use of drugs or psychoactive substances in which the user consumes the substance with amount or method which are harmful to them or others
Current user: A person who consumed any substance at least once in the past 30 days.
Ever user: Use of any of the substances at least once in an individual’s life time.
Illicit drugs: The use of psychoactive substances such as hashish, cannabis, and heroin, for which the production, sale, or use is prohibited.
Sample size and Sampling Procedure
Z= Value of 95% confidence interval, which is the normal standard deviation=1.96
D= difference in precision or estimate=0.05%
P=Prevalence of substance is =34.6% (Research conducted in Woldia Town in 2015 E.C)(13).
n=z a/Z2×P (1-p)/d2 == (1.96)2×0.346(1-0.346)/ (0.05)2= 347
N=Total number of population
nf =Final sample size
The estimated sample size is 347 .By adding 10% non-response rates the total sample size was 382. By using reduction formula since the study population less than 10,000
= 307.7~308 Therefore the final sample size was 308
Sampling Technique: The sizes of the study population were selected by using proportional allocation and an individual was selected by systematic random sampling technique.
Data collection procedure and tools
The data was collected using 3(BSc degree in midwifery and 2 BSc degrees in Nursing) professionals. Each question was explained to the students to help their understanding. The data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaire which was prepared in English and then translate to the local language of Amharic and again back to English to confirm the correctness of the tools.
Data quality assurance
In order to assure data quality, high emphasis was given to minimize errors using the following strategies. The questionnaire was adapted from previous similar literatures (2, 3, 5, 10, 11, 14)and questionnaire were pretested on 5% of the sample size in Bahirdar university, health science college, subsequent correction and modification was done, and proper instruction or training was given before the survey. The collected data’s were reviewed and checked for completeness before data entry and strictly supervision was done till end of the data collection.