The FTIR technique was employed to investigate the properties of mordanted and dyed yarns. The most significant chemical group of wool yarns is the peptide group, which was strongly seen in the FTIR results (Sakhai et al., 2008). The peptide bonds (Fig. 3), containing three different types of amines, have been reported in many papers (Jahan et al., 2015; Chairat et al., 2007; Kozlowski et al., 2012; Sakhai et al., 2008). The presence of a hydroxyl group in the spectrum of mordanted and dyed yarns are of the utmost importance in the spectrum of washed yarns. The extraction of pomegranate peel is brimming with tannin and the spectrum of mordanted yarns shows the interactions well (Sanjay et al., 2017).
The use of mordnat in the dyeing process has an undeniable effect on increasing color stability and yield. Mordant application alters and enhances dye and fiber interactions. In the presence of metal mordant, metal complexes are formed on the surface of the fiber, which increases the color strength. The amount of K/S of dyeing samples is illustrated in Fig. 4. It is apparent from the figure that increase of natural dye concentration (either madder or Reseda) from 10 to 20, and then 40% boosted color strength. The results show that the amount of K/S for Resedaluteola -dyed samples is higher than the madder-dyed samples. All peaks related to the CN group in the FTIR test results of the dyed samples have been removed (Rather et al., 2017a).
The pumpkin extract to dyeing bath give rise to a higher K/S value for wool with respect to the natural fabrics dyed in the absence of pumpkin. Second-generation biomordants used in this work also helped delving into the depth of dyeing in aid of mineral components present in pumpkin extracts. There is evidence that metal ions contribute to formation of complex with dye molecules leading to enhanced fixation and affinity of dyed fibers/fabrics-what caused a rise in the value of K/S (Prabhu et al., 2014; Yin et al., 2017). In another study, Babul extract was employed as tannin-based mordant in wool dyeing with K/S about 4.14 (Kozlowski et al., 2012). Employing of Gallut (tannin-rich) in pre- and post-mordanting technique resulted in K/S values of 16.09 and 14.66, respectively (Yusuf et al., 2017). This is an indication of the fact that dyeing in the presence of tannin-based first-generation bio-mordant gives K/S values relatively lower than that of metal-rich pumpkin ones.
Two characteristics of dyed natural fibers that change in the presence of mordants are: K/S and CIELAB. Dyed fibers with Reseda and Madder are placed in the savior of red-yellow and red-blue quarter, respectively. Except the wool yarns dyed with Reseda in the presence of alum mordant, by increasing the natural dyes concentration the chroma attribute (C*) of samples increased, while the corresponding lightness values (L*) decreased. In other words, while applying more contents of the used natural dyes in producing darker and more saturated colors, increase of Reseda concentration in the presence of alum mordant could not produce wool yarns with more saturated yellow appearance. By contrast, except the wool yarns dyed with madder in the presence of 15% pumpkin and 2% alum, increase of dye content from 20 to 40 wt.% ended in a substantial fall in the lightness attribute. It means that applying twice amounts of Reseda and madder dyes leads to producing darker colors, with a roughly the same chroma value. The silk and cotton fibers were dyed using mineral mordant, namely copper sulphate and Emblicaofficinalis as bio-dye and obtained the similar results for K/S properties (Prabhu et al., 2014). In other study, gallnut was used as new bio-mordnat for wool dyeing employing madder as natural dye. The new shade range in red-yellow quadrant was achieved and all samples presented good fastness properties (Yusuf et al., 2017).
ISO105-C10, ISO105-B02 and ISO105-X12 were selected to study wash, light and rubbing fastness of dyed samples, respectively (Table 1). Considering color affinity towards wool, as featured by K/S value, the column corresponding to such characteristic is painted from pale yellow to red for visual representation of the performance of metal-rich pumpkin extract in dyeing wool fibers in terms of concentration and type of the used natural dyes. The results of the meta-mordanting method are given in parentheses. The results illustrated that washing and staining fastness of samples was very good (4–5 to 5) and good (5) in the presence of mordants, respectively. The use of mordant is also effective in improving light fastness, but this amount is lower compared to mineral mordant. The results reported by Prabhu et al. (Prabhu et al., 2014) for dyeing of natural fibers (wool, cotton and silk) with natural dye are similar to the results obtained in this study. The tea as natural source was extracted for dye preparation and resulted extraction was employed for wool dyeing. The results showed that tea does not require mordanting due to the presence of large amounts of tannins and the fibers dyed with it have good fastness properties. Of course, the fastness properties of dyed fibers depend on pH value (Rena et al., 2016).Generally, the using of mordant improve the fastness properties due to the ability of the dye molecules to self-associate through intermolecular hydrogen bonding (Hosseinnezhad et al., 2015). Yusuf et al. extracted safflower as a natural dye for silk fabric dyeing. The dyeing was done in microwave conditions for three minutes. Turmeric and henna were selected as bio-mordanted and applied using pre and post-mordanting techniques. All the fastness properties of the dyed fibers were significantly increased by mordanting. The fastness properties of samples using natural mordants were very close to metal mordants (Yusuf et al., 2017). The use of 5% of Babul in dyeing wool ended in the light, wash and rub fastness values of 5, 4, and 4–5, respectively (Rather et al., 2017a). Hosseinnezhad et al. investigated the combination of two natural mordants on dyed fiber properties. Yellow and black myrobolan as tannin-rich mordants were selected for wool dyeing. The optimal ratio of the twomordants is yellow myrobolan: black myrobolan = 4:6. The highest K/S was obtained in this ratio (Hosseinnezhad et al., 2020). The chemical bonding between the fiber and the tannin is different from the mordant containing metal elements (Fig. 5). More interestingly, second-generation natural mordants are promising for the future ahead of green dyeing process( Mansour et al., 2011).