In this paper, the three-dimensional bowl surface was obtained by reasonably planning the radial heating path by taking the laser as the heat source and the stainless steel composite plate (06Cr19Ni10/1Cr17Mn6Ni5N/06Cr19Ni10) as the research object, and the forming process of the three-dimensional bowl surface was studied. It was found that the target surface bending forming obtained by inside-outside symmetric scanning strategy (Strategy d) had the highest accuracy. The plate deformation increased with the increase of laser power (P), increased then decreased with the increase of heating line length (L), and decreased with the increase of scanning speed (V). Moreover, the deformation was approximately linear with the number of repeated heating (N), with the optimal process conditions of P = 500W, V = 10 mm/s, L = 20 mm, N = 7. A three-dimensional thermodynamic coupling model of a three-layer composite plate was established and verified experimentally.