1. Arsalidou, M. & Taylor, M. J. Is 2+2=4? Meta-analyses of brain areas needed for numbers and calculations. *Neuroimage* **54**, 2382–2393 (2011).

2. Benavides-Varela, S. *et al.* Re-assessing acalculia: Distinguishing Spatial and purely Arithmetical deficits in right-hemisphere damaged patients. *Cortex* (2016). doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2016.12.014

3. Salillas, E. *et al.* Neurofunctional Components of Simple Calculation: A Magnetoencephalography Study. *Cereb. Cortex* **31**, 1149-1162. (2021).

4. Dehaene, S. & Cohen, L. Towards an anatomical and functional model of number processing. *Math. Cogn.* **1**, 83–120 (1995).

5. Benavides-Varela, S. & Semenza, C. Reassessing Lateralisation in Calculation.

6. Rosenberg-lee, M., Ting, T., Young, C. B., Wu, S. & Menon, V. Neuropsychologia Functional dissociations between four basic arithmetic operations in the human posterior parietal cortex : A cytoarchitectonic mapping study. **49**, 2592–2608 (2011).

7. Salillas, E., Semenza, C., Basso, D., Vecchi, T. & Siegal, M. Single pulse TMS induced disruption to right and left parietal cortex on addition and multiplication. *Neuroimage* **59**, 3159–3165 (2012).

8. Kiefer, M. & Dehaene, S. The Time Course of Parietal Activation in Single-digit Multiplication: Evidence from Event-related Potentials. *Mathematical Cognition* **3**, 1–30 (1997).

9. Pesenti, M. *et al.* Mental calculation in a prodigy is sustained by right prefrontal and medial temporal areas. *Nat. Neurosci.* **4**, 103–107 (2001).

10. Semenza, C., Salillas, E., De Pallegrin, S. & Della Puppa, A. Balancing the 2 Hemispheres in Simple Calculation: Evidence from Direct Cortical Electrostimulation. *Cereb. Cortex* **27**, 4806–4814 (2016).

11. Della Puppa, A. *et al.* Right parietal cortex and calculation processing: intraoperative functional mapping of multiplication and addition in patients affected by a brain tumor. *J. Neurosurg.* **119**, 1107–11 (2013).

12. Jost, K., Beinhoff, U., Hennighausen, E. & Ro, F. Facts , rules , and strategies in single-digit multiplication : evidence from event-related brain potentials. **20**, 183–193 (2004).

13. Glass, A. Intensity of attenuation of alpha activity by mental arithmetic in females and males. *Physiol. Behav.* **3**, 217–220 (1968).

14. De Smedt, B., Grabner, R. H. & Studer, B. Oscillatory EEG correlates of arithmetic strategy use in addition and subtraction. *Exp. Brain Res.* **195**, 635–642 (2009).

15. Grabner, R. H. *et al.* To retrieve or to calculate? Left angular gyrus mediates the retrieval of arithmetic facts during problem solving. *Neuropsychologia* **47**, 604–608 (2009).

16. Yu, X. & Zhang, J. Estimating the cortex and autonomic nervous activity during a mental arithmetic task. *Biomed. Signal Process. Control* **7**, 303–308 (2012).

17. Grabner, R. H. & De Smedt, B. Oscillatory EEG correlates of arithmetic strategies: A training study. *Front. Psychol.* **3**, 1–11 (2012).

18. Klados, M. A. *et al.* A Graph theoretical approach to study the organization of the cortical networks during different mathematical tasks. *PLoS One* **8**, (2013).

19. Grabner, R. H. & De Smedt, B. Neurophysiological evidence for the validity of verbal strategy reports in mental arithmetic. *Biol. Psychol.* **87**, 128–136 (2011).

20. Hinault, T. & Lemaire, P. What does EEG tell us about arithmetic strategies? A review. *Int. J. Psychophysiol.* **106**, 115–126 (2016).

21. Cohen, M. X. *Analyzing neural time series data: theory and practice*. (MIT press, 2014).

22. Benavides-Varela, S. *et al.* Re-assessing acalculia: Distinguishing Spatial and purely Arithmetical deficits in right-hemisphere damaged patients. *Cortex* **88**, 151–164 (2017).

23. Niedeggen, M. & Rösler, F. N400 effects reflect activation spread during retrieval of arithmetic facts. *Psychol. Sci.* **10**, 271–276 (1999).

24. Zhou, X. *et al.* Event-related potentials of single-digit addition, subtraction, and multiplication. *Neuropsychologia* **44**, 2500–2507 (2006).

25. Zhou, X. *et al.* The operand-order effect in single-digit multiplication: An ERP study of Chinese adults. *Neurosci. Lett.* **414**, 41–44 (2007).

26. Jasinski, E. C. & Coch, D. ERPs across arithmetic operations in a delayed answer verification task. *Psychophysiology* **49**, 943–958 (2012).

27. Garthwaite, P. The distribution of the difference between two t-variates. *Biometrika* **2**, 987–994 (2004).

28. LeFevre, J. A. & Morris, J. More on the relation between division and multiplication in simple arithmetic: Evidence for mediation of division solutions via multiplication. *Mem. Cogn.* **27**, 803–812 (1999).

29. Van Den Berg, B., Appelbaum, L. G., Clark, K., Lorist, M. M. & Woldorff, M. G. Visual search performance is predicted by both prestimulus and poststimulus electrical brain activity. *Sci. Rep.* **6**, 1–13 (2016).

30. Novikov, N. A. *et al.* Slow and fast responses: Two mechanisms of trial outcome processing revealed by EEG oscillations. *Front. Hum. Neurosci.* **11**, 1–16 (2017).

31. Chernyshev, B. & Medvedev, V. Event-Related Potential Study of P2 and N2 Components on Fast and Slow Responses in the Auditory Condensation Task. *SSRN Electron. J.* (2018). doi:10.2139/ssrn.2890474

32. Verleger, R., Jaśkowski, P. & Wascher, E. Evidence for an integrative role of P3b in linking reaction to perception. *J. Psychophysiol.* **19**, 165–181 (2005).

33. Niedeggen, M. & Rösler, F. N400 Effects Reflect Activation Spread During Retrieval of Arithmetic Facts. *Psychol. Sci.* **10**, 271–276 (1999).

34. Capizzi, M., Ambrosini, E., Arbula, S., Mazzonetto, I. & Vallesi, A. Testing the domain-general nature of monitoring in the spatial and verbal cognitive domains. *Neuropsychologia* **89**, 83–95 (2016).

35. Tarantino, V., Mazzonetto, I., Formica, S., Causin, F. & Vallesi, A. The Neural Bases of Event Monitoring across Domains: a Simultaneous ERP-fMRI Study. *Front. Hum. Neurosci.* **11**, 1–17 (2017).

36. Corbetta, M., Patel, G. & Shulman, G. L. The Reorienting System of the Human Brain: From Environment to Theory of Mind. *Neuron* **58**, 306–324 (2008).

37. Jacobs, J., Hwang, G., Curran, T. & Kahana, M. J. EEG oscillations and recognition memory: Theta correlates of memory retrieval and decision making. *Neuroimage* **32**, 978–987 (2006).

38. Cavanagh, J. F., Frank, M. J., Klein, T. J. & Allen, J. J. B. Frontal theta links prediction errors to behavioral adaptation in reinforcement learning. *Neuroimage* **49**, 3198–3209 (2010).

39. Pezzetta, R., Wokke, M. E., Aglioti, S. M. & Ridderinkhof, K. R. Doing it Wrong: A Systematic Review on Electrocortical and Behavioral Correlates of Error Monitoring in Patients with Neurological Disorders. *Neuroscience* (2021). doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.01.027

40. Olson, I. R. & Berryhill, M. Some surprising findings on the involvement of the parietal lobe in human memory. *Neurobiol. Learn. Mem.* **91**, 155–165 (2009).

41. Addante, R. J., Watrous, A. J., Yonelinas, A. P., Ekstrom, A. D. & Ranganath, C. Prestimulus theta activity predicts correct source memory retrieval. *Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.* **108**, 10702–10707 (2011).

42. Thevenot, C., Castel, C., Danjon, J. & Fayol, M. Identifying strategies in arithmetic with the operand recognition paradigm: A matter of switch cost? *J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn.* **41**, 541–552 (2015).

43. Hartwigsen, G. *et al.* Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri. *Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.* **107**, 16494–16499 (2010).

44. Wiener, M., Hamilton, R., Turkeltaub, P., Matell, M. S. & Branch Coslett, H. Fast Forward: Supramarginal Gyrus Stimulation Alters Time Measurement. *J. Cogn. Neurosci.* **22**, 23–31 (2010).

45. Liljeström, M., Hultén, A., Parkkonen, L. & Salmelin, R. Comparing MEG and fMRI views to naming actions and objects. *Hum. Brain Mapp.* **30**, 1845–1856 (2009).

46. Levelt, W. J., Praamstra, P., Meyer, a S., Helenius, P. & Salmelin, R. An MEG study of picture naming. *J. Cogn. Neurosci.* **10**, 553–567 (1998).

47. Ashcraft, M. H. Cognitive arithmetic: a review of data and theory. *Cognition* **44**, 75–106 (1992).

48. Jost, K., Hennighausen, E. & Ro, F. Comparing arithmetic and semantic fact retrieval : Effects of problem size and sentence constraint on event-related brain potentials. **41**, 46–59 (2004).

49. Peirce, J. W. PsychoPy-Psychophysics software in Python. *J. Neurosci. Methods* **162**, 8–13 (2007).

50. Verleger, R., Jaśkowski, P. & Wascher, E. Evidence for an integrative role of P3b in linking reaction to perception. *J. Psychophysiol.* **19**, 165–181 (2005).

51. Protopapas, A. CheckVocal : A program to facilitate checking the accuracy and response time of vocal responses from DMDX. *Behav. Res. Methods* **39**, 859–862 (2007).

52. Heil, M., Osman, A., Wiegelmann, J., Rolke, B. & Hennighausen, E. N200 in the Eriksen-task: Inhibitory executive processes? *J. Psychophysiol.* **14**, 218–225 (2000).

53. Tadel, F., Baillet, S., Mosher, J. C., Pantazis, D. & Leahy, R. M. Brainstorm: A user-friendly application for MEG/EEG analysis. *Comput. Intell. Neurosci.* **2011**, (2011).

54. Arcara, G. & Petrova, A. erpR: Event-Related Potentials (ERP) Analysis, Graphics and Utility Functions. (2017).

55. Dale, A. M., Fischl, B. & Sereno, M. I. Cortical Surface-Based Analysis. *Neuroimage* **9**, 179–194 (1999).

56. Destrieux, C., Fischl, B., Dale, A. & Halgren, E. Automatic parcellation of human cortical gyri and sulci using standard anatomical nomenclature. *Neuroimage* **53**, 1–15 (2010).

57. Benjamini, Y. & Hochberg, Y. Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical And Powerful Approach to Mu. *J. R. Stat. Soc. Ser. B* **57**, 289–300 (1995).

58. Bakeman, R. Recommended effect size statistics for repeated measures designs. *Behav. Res. Methods* **37**, 379–84 (2005).

59. Groppe, D. M., Urbach, T. P. & Kutas, M. Mass univariate analysis of event-related brain potentials/fields I: a critical tutorial review. *Psychophysiology* **48**, 1711–25 (2011).

** **