Among the polychaetes collected, 27 species belonging to 16 genera under 12 families were identified based on morphological key characteristics. Of these 27 species, 16 were new records to the study area and they are shown in Table 1.
Schroederella pauliani (Laubier, 1962) (Plate 1; Figs. 1A-F)
Schroederella pauliani Laubier, 1962: 231, Figs. 1–2.
Body 3–4 mm length having 40 segments with a very pointed lengthy prostomium separated into two annuli. Pair of eyes was present. Thorax segments were seen without branchiae. Post setal lobe of notopodium small and visible on setiger 7. Thoracic neuropodia was observed without foot papillae. Four to five segments were seen between thorax and abdomen (Figs. 1A & B). Abdomen with digitiform dorsal branchiae and small postsetal notopodial lobes were observed. Foot was developed (Fig. 1C). Notosetae were crenulated. Thoracic unicinus developed (Fig. 1D). Thoracic neurosetae with a few crenulated, capillaries and several serrated acicular uncini were observed (Fig. 1E). Abdominal neurosetae and foot (Fig. 1F) include two crenulated capillaries and a single hunt acicular seta. Mandibles were white in colour and calcified distally. Gills were simple and begin on chaetiger 9 and continuing to near the end of the body. First two parapodia consist of winged capillary chaetae and simple stout hooks were observed.
Cossura coasta (Kitamori, 1960) (Plate 2; Figs. 2A-E)
Cossura coasta Kitamori, 1960: I082, fig, I a-f; Day, 1963: 427.
This worm was small, (Figs. 2A, B & D) thread like, measuring 12 to 15 mm in length with 98 to 106 segments. Body of the animal was long, cylindrical and pointed at both ends. Prostomium was present with three long anal cirri. Pharynx was lobed and eversible. Appendages were absent in first two segments. Parapodia was absent in this species and the setae arise from the middle dorsal part of the third setigerous segment and measures 8, 10, 12 mm in size. Two types of setae were present, preacicular setae barred transversely. Chaetae of first three segments were longer and broader which reduce its thickness in successive segments. Two types of post acicular chaetae were present. Majority were long, smooth and slender capillaries (Fig. 2E) and a few were shorter with finely serrated and flattened blades. Parapodial aciculae were slightly projected and are curved. Prostomium was conical with two nuchal organs. Eye spots were absent. Pygidium was well developed. Noto aciculae were very small in size. Neurosetae are bifurcate, with prongs of different length. Foot was large in size except anterior and posterior regions (Fig. 2C).
Scololepis squamata (Muller, 1806) (Plate 3; Figs. 3A-H)
Lumbricus squamatus Muller, 1806:39.
Lumbricus cirratulus Delle Chiaje, 1825: 196.
Nerine cirratulus: Fauvel, 1927: 36, Fig. 11g-n; Day, 1955: 412, fig. l, j.
Size of the species was 138 mm with 200 segments. Prostomium was pointed anteriorly (Figs. 3A &B), with four to six eyes in a row. Triangular caruncle was present. Notopodial lamellae jointed to the branchiae anteriorly. But free posteriorly with the inferior margin produced downwards towards the neuropodium. Notopodial hooded hooks were developed (Fig. 3G). Postchaetal lobes are segmented in the following segments and were small and ovoid in shape. Post chaetal lobes in anterior segments were short and rounded from segment 18–20 onwards and were weak and bilobed. A maximum of twelve neuropodial hooks were present. Cirriform longer than prolonged gills, start at segment 2. Anterior parapodia have capillary chaetae (Fig. 3D) was only from neuropodium. Hooded hooks (Fig. 3E) were present. Notosetae were formed from notopodia (Fig. 3C). Pygidium has a single lobe (Fig. 3H). Capillary notosetae were seen (Fig. 3F). Hooded hooks were usually bidentate, unidentate or with two small accessory teeth. The worm was bluish green in colour.
Capitella capitata (Fabricius, 1780) (Plate 4; Figs. 4A-E)
Lumbricus capitatus Fabricius, 1780: 279.
Capitella capitata : Fauvel, 1927: 154, Fig. 55a-h; Hartman, 1947: 404, pl.43; Fig. 1–2.
Body was lengthy, oval, flimsy, tapered at each end, wider anteriorly, thread like, 110–120 mm long for hundred segments and dark red in colour. In the anterior region of the body (Fig. 4A) prostomium of the species was conical in shape, with two small eyes ventrally and with two - nuchal organs behind eyes. Thorax has 9 chaetigers. The segments of thorax were biannulate. Both rami consist of capillaries from the first segment. Peristomial segment of sixth to seventh have capillaries and hooks. In the female, the 8th and 9th segments (Fig. 4B, C) have hooks in both rami, but in male there were 4 stout genital hooks (Fig. 4D) and dorsally positioned inwards towards the genital opening. Normal hooks (Fig. 4E) were ventrally arranged in a diagonal cross. A single genital pore opens mid–dorsally between chaetigers 8 and 9. Very large sized proboscis was present and is muscular in nature. Proboscis has a pair of chitinous jaws. Parapodia is biramous with divergent setigerous lobes, each bearing delicate anterior and posterior lamellae. Simple setae were arranged on two rows. The anterior row has laddered capillaries and the posterior rows, have long capillaries. Forked setae were also present. Abdominal neurosetae was narrow. Winged capillaries were seen. Pygidial eye spots were present. Pair of internal eyes was present in the collar segment. Winged capillaries were present on thoracic notosetae.
Notomastus aberans (Day, 1957) (Plate 5; Figs. 5A-D)
Notomastus aberans Sars, 1851.
Notomastus aberans : Day, 1957: 105, Fig. 7a-b.
Notomastus fauvelii Day, 1955:422, Fig. 2h-l.
Notomastus giganteus Fauvel, 1932:194.
Notomastus latericeus Sars,1851:199; Fauvel, 1927:143,Fig. 49a-h.
Body is 60 mm long and have 120 segments. Thorax with an achaetous peristomium was followed by 11 setigerous segments. The first setigerous segment has notopodial capillaries and neuropodial capillaries and the remaining setigers bear capillaries in both notopodia and neuropodia. Prostomium (Fig. 5A) bears an elongate cone with eyes. Peristome is achaetous. First thoracic setiger has notopodial capillaries. No neurosetae was found. Abdominal segments (Fig. 5B) have short rows of hooks (Figs. 5C & D) in both notopodia and neuropodia. Gills were present on the outer edge of the abdominal notopodia and the superior edges of the neuropodia. The first row has four teeth; the second row has five teeth were observed. Posterior abdominal segments are seen companulate when shrinked. Branchiae was triangular. Median antenna with large dark coloured ceratophore was present. Lateral antennae consist of short pigmented ceratophore. Palps were 3 times longer than prostomium with some pigments. Tentacular segment has basal lobes.
Euclymene annandalei (Southern, 1921) (Plate 6; Figs. 6A-G)
Euclymene annandalei Southern, 1921:648, pl.28 Fig. 22A-G, pl.29 Fig. 22H-K.
Body length 80 mm, oval, longer and wider was observed. Encircling rim, higher anteriorly, laterally and posteriorly were found (Fig. 6B). Prostomium was (Figs. 6A&E) blunt, triangular with numerous ocelli, oval, longer than wide, with an encircling rim, higher anteriorly. Nuchal grooves straight and two third of the length of the cephalic lobe, and parallel extending posteriorly to the beginning of the lateral incision with many ocelli. Cephalic rim high anteriorly but lower and divided into about eight crenulations posteriorly, 21 setigerous bodies, two achaetous preanals followed by the pygidial ring and anal funnel (Fig. 6F). Anterior segments shorter and posterior ones were lengthy. Segments have strongly reduced ventral hooks. Acicular spines were seen on aciculum (Fig. 6D). Posteriorly 3 segments were seen without chaetae. Pygidium funnel shaped. Subsequent neurosetae have numerous hooks. Dorsal tubercles were also present on 3rd and 6th segment. Straight winged setae were seen (Fig. 6G). The elytra were oval in shape and elongated. Hooks were normal in size (Fig. 6C).
Ancistrosyllis robusta (Ehlers, 1908) (Plate. 7; Figs. 7A-I)
Ancistrosyllis robusta Ehlers, 1908: 59, pl. 6 Figs. 4–7.
Body was elongated, slender, 54 mm long with 182 segments. Prostomium has three slender antennae and two biarticulate palps having small palpostyles (Figs. 7A&B). The median antenna is reaching back to setiger 5. Heavy palps with knob shaped palpostyles, pharynx short and stout and the mouth entrance was surrounded by 16 ovoid papillae. Peristome has two pairs of tentacular cirri. Dorsal cirrus of setiger was twice the length of the tentacular cirri (Fig. 7H). Parapodial lobe and forked setae (Fig. 7I) was present. Ventral cirrus much shorter and neuropodial setae (Figs. 7E&F) were of varying length, the shorter ones finely serrated the longer ones regular. Capillary chaetae arose with fine teeth at the tip on notopodia (Fig. 7D). Prominent on neuropodia from the 2nd chaetiger, long on thorax, short on abdomen. 44th segment was broader (Fig. 7C). Uncini present in double rows on segments 11–20. Large pygidium (Fig. 7G) was present with appendages. Eye spots were absent. Three pairs of gills are present and each composed of numerous simple filaments.
Dendronereides zululandica (Day, 1951) (Plate 8; Figs. 8A-H)
Dendronereides zululandica Day, 1951: 30, Fig. 5a-j.
Body stretched to 70 mm by 1.5 mm, width for 100 segments. In the anterior region prostomium (Fig. 8A) with two antennae was observed. Parapodium was absent. Large cirrophores and short tentacular cirri were present. Dorsal and ventral cirri partially fused to form segments. In the anterior region, the superior lobe of the notopodium was divided to form a simple series of branchial foot (Fig. 8C). Interior lobe of neuropodium absent, feet reduced and simplified posteriorly. Neuropodium present with a single broad setigerous lobe. Notopodial lobes being reduced to two. Notosetae were all homogomph spinigers. Most of the neurosetae were heterogomph falcigers (Fig. 8D). Some were homogomph falcigers (Figs. 8E&F). Homogomph and heterogomph spinigers are also seen in this worm (Figs. 8G&H). The tentacular segment and the prostomium are partially fused. The prostomium is bilobed. Lateral antenna eyes and occipital papillae were median. Single aciculums and few capillary setae were present. Short tentacular cirri were present. Elytrophores were elongated. Biramous parapodia were present. Neuropodia was stout. Post setal lobes were shorter and conical together enclosing very thick bundles of numerous neurosetae. Proboscis was clearly developed (Fig. 8B).
Laeonereis ankyloseta (Day, 1957) (Plate 9; Figs. 9A-G)
Laeonereis ankyloseta Day, 1957: 83, Fig. 5a-j.
Body elongated up to 50 mm long with numerous segments. Head was clearly seen. Distinct peristomium and prostomium (Fig. 9A) were seen in anterior region and sharply on head. Brownish spots were present on the anterior segment of the worm. Prostomium was as broad as long and has a clear median groove. Well developed proboscis was seen (Fig. 9C).Two pairs of eyes were present on prostomium. No modifications were seen in anterior foot (Fig. 9D).Two frontal antennae and two biarticulate palps are also present. Parapodia were biramous. One to three lobes are present on the notopodium. Two lobes and ventral cirri were present on neuropodium. Compound setae were present and simple setae were also seen. Tentacular cirri were very short in size. Smooth maxillary ring was present. Two notopodial lobes and longer dorsal cirri were present on anterior feet. First segment behind the head was apodous. The first two feet uniramous and the rest were biramous. Parapodium consists of dorsal and ventral cirrus. Neuropodium consists of two lobes, 1. An setigerous lobe on which pre and post setal lips were prominent, 2. An inferior lobe was observed. Specialised gills were also present. The origin of the dorsal cirrus and its length were relative to the superior lobe of the notopodium and modifications of the later in posterior feet (Fig. 9B). The first setigerous segments have sub-biramous parapodia, the notopodia lacking notosetae; the remaining segments have biramous parapodia. The ventral cirri were short, tapered and single. The pygidium was provided with a pair of anal cirri. Three falcigers were present. They were: 1. simple falcigers (Fig. 9E), anterior falcigers (Fig. 9F) and posterior falcigers (Fig. 9G).
Platynereis dumerilii (Audouin and Milne-Edwards, 1833) (Plate 10; Figs. 10A-G)
Nereis dumerilii Audouin and Milne-Edwards, 1834:19b.
Platynereis dumerilii : Fauvel, 1923:359, Fig. 141a-f.
Body of the species elongated with 45 mm length which was multisegmented. In the anterior region of the body (Fig. 10A) prostomium was longer than broad with enlarged, flattened, swollen palps. Palps were two in number. Proboscis well developed (Fig. 10B). Prostomium was distinct. Long tentacular cirri were present. Long anterior feet with two rounded large notopodial lobes were present, a minute intermediate lobe and long dorsal cirrus are seen. Numerous spinigers (Fig. 10G) were present on notosetae on middle feet onwards, two or three homogomph falcigers. The blade was elongate and deeply bent backward at the top which has a terminal knob. Neurosetae was spinigers and falcigers (Fig. 10E&F). Tendons attached on blades. In the heteronereid stage the first modified foot (Fig. 10C) of the male is the 15th and of the female the 18th. Setae were composite or simple, spinigerous or falcigerous (Fig. 10D). Anterodorsal and posterodorsal cirri were of about the same length, anteroventral ones slightly shorter, bent downwards and posterodorsal cirri extending to chaetiger 2. Parapodia have conical acicular neuropodial ligule. Dorsal cirri were cirriform, only about half as long as dorsal cirri. Notochaetae are absent. Antennae are short and are not reached the tip of prostomium. Anterior segments six times broader than long, posterior one about as broad as long.
Perinereis cultrifera (Grube, 1840) (Plate 11; Figs. 11A-F)
Nereis cultrifera Grube, 1840:74.
Perinereis cultrifera : Fauvel, 1923: 352, Fig. 137.
Body of the species was wide, tapering posteriorly, integument smooth, 250 mm in length and have 125 segments (Fig. 11A). Proboscis was observed eversible in this worm. In the anterior region prostomium was triangular in shape with a pair of short antennae without cirrophores (Fig. 11B). A pair of biarticulate large palps with short styles, 2 pairs of eyes in a trapezoid arrangement was observed. Peristomial segments were apodous. Parapodia were biramous (Fig. 11C) except for the first two which uniramous. The setae were compound and include both spinigers (Figs. 11E& F) and falcigers. Dorsal tentacular cirri longer than ventral ones, second dorsal tentacular cirrus reaching back to chaetiger 6, pharynx with a pair of denticulate jaw. Two notopodial lobes are present on the anterior feet. Dorsal cirrus was short. Straight blades were seen in neuropodial falcigers. Paragnaths were present on some areas. The first segment behind the head was apodous. The neuropodium consists of two lobes. The setae are compound. The blade may be falcigerous (Fig. 11D) typically short and stout. Superior lobe of posterior notopodia not expanded.
Glycera alba (Muller, 1788) (Plate 12; Figs. 12A-G)
Nereis alba Muller, 1788: 217. pl. 2. Figures 6–7.
Glycera alba : Fauvel, 1923: 385. Figure 150
Body was 100 mm long with 150 segments. Prostomium composed of rings with palps and antenna forming a cross at the tip (Fig. 12A&D). Papillae on the proboscis have a distal flange and midbody segments were biannulate. Parapodia have pre and postchaetal lamellae. Long presetal lobes were present on parapodium. Superior postsetal lobe was pointed and the inferior one was rounded. Postchaetal lamellae were long, pointed uniform in size and clearly separated. Branchiae arise from the dorsal edge of the parapodium (Figs. 12C, E&G) at the level of the presetal lobe. Dorsal cirri were ovoid and ventral cirri triangular. Gills occur on the dorsal side of the parapodium starting at chaetiger 20. Pharynx has papillae of three kinds, fingernail finger shaped and conical. Aileron with an inner branch united to the outer branch by an interramal plate. Ramus was not divergent and ventral cirri short in length. Toothed jaws were visible (Fig. 12K). There was oral ring forming the mouth opening and lips. Head and half of the anterior segments were dark brown in colour. Tentacular cirri were fairly short except for the posterior dorsal one. All paragnaths were small and conical in shape. Falcigers was slightly hooked. Aciculum diverged (Fig. 12B) and consists of acicular seta (Fig. 12F).
Goniada emerita (Audouin and Milne -Edwards, 1833) (Plate 13; Figs. 13A-J)
Goniada emerita Audouin and Milne-Edwards, 1833:268; Fauvel, 1923:391, Fig. 154h-q.
Body was relatively broad, elongate with three regions. Prostomium composed of eight rings, with palps and antennae forming a cross at the tip anteriorly (Figs. 13A&B). Anterior parapodia uniramous with a prechaetal lamella was observed. Postchaetal lamella was bigger and middle parapodium biamous (Fig. 13E). Posterior parapodium was biramous with a small notopodium with a prechaetal lamella and a short postchaetal lamella. Posterior neuropodia with short prechaetal and longer postchaetal lamellae was observed. Paragnath has two teeths (Fig. 13D) and dorsal and ventral cirri were finger like. Notopodial chaeta was short. Neuropodial chaetae are compound. Two kinds of papillae was present on pharynx; some were semiglobular and some bifid. Macrognath has 3 teeth and ventral cirrus was triangular. Mouth was circular in shape (Fig. 13F). Stalks was present and have compound bristles (Figs. 13G&H). Posterior tooth was large. The anterior teeth have biramous feet. Proboscis covered with essentially similar papillae and fermenting in a mouth with a pair of large toothed jaws and a circle of small micrognaths were observed. A longitudinal row of V shaped chevrons (Fig. 13C) on either side of the 147th proboscis was observed. No branchia; notoseta were simple and observed two types; 1. Acicular notosetae (Fig. 13I) and 2. spinigerous notosetae (Fig. 13J); neurosetae compound spinigerous.
Nephtys capensis (Day, 1953) (Plate 14; Figs. 14AH)
Nephtys capensis Day, 1953: 431, Fig. 5g-m.
Body was elongated, depressed, slender and 75 mm long. Numerous segments were present in this worm. Two well developed antennae were present; one was longer than the other. Anterior region prostomium was arched and pentagonal in shape (Fig. 14A&B). Two palps were present and are equal in shape. Dorsal tentacular cirri are present on the first segment and were leaf shaped. Ventral tentacular cirri was little longer than the palps. Geniculate seta (Fig. 14G) and forked seta were developed (Fig. 14H). Post setal lamellae of notopodia were simple, rounded, and was little longer than the acicular lobe. Neuropodia were oval in shape and is broadly rounded and much longer than the acicular setae. Eyes were visible through the skin. Dorsal cirrus of first foot was well developed. Cirriform gills start on setiger 4 and project straight out. Tapered notopodial cirrus was at the base. In the anterior feet all lamellae exceed the setigerous lobes were observed. Parapodium was well developed (Fig. 14C). Entire body was covered with marginal spinules (Fig. 14E). The notopodium has a round presetal lamella and a larger, orbicular post setal one. The neuropodium has round presetal lamellae and larger orbicular post setal lamellae. The notopodium has an oval presetal lamella, a blade like superior lamella and large orbicular post setal lamellae. In the posterior feet, all lamellae decrease in size. In the neuropodium, the main lobe is inferior and a posterior lobe was very long and has flattened and laddered capillaries (Fig. 14F).
Eunice indica (Kinberg, 1865) (Plate 15; Figs. 15A-G)
Eunice indica Vitatta Fauvel, 1923:404, Fig. 158h-n.
Eunice indica : Kinberg, 1865: 562; Crossland, 1904: 318, pl. 21 Figs. 9–12; Fauvel, 1953: 241,Fig. 119g.
Body of the species was long with, 58 mm length and have small head. Palps were present clearly and fused, so that the anterior margin was slightly notched. Antennae long and smooth reaching to setiger 7. Long and slender tentacular cirri were present. Numerous teeth were seen on jaws. Anterior dorsal cirri were not elongated. Branchiae from setiger 3 increase rapidly to 10–15 filaments and were restricted to the anterior part of the body. Compound seta and foot (Fig. 15C) were present (Figs. 15B&G). Acicula of this species was almost straight, blunt and yellow in colour. Long pointed guards are present and were bidentate. One margin acicular seta (Figs. 15D&F) was seen and is striated. An antenna was seen and subequal in length and shorter than prostomium (Figs. 15A&E). Two eyes were present and are large in size. Eyes were black and oval in shape. Parapodia of this species were blunty and conical in shape. Dorsal cirrus was rounded and the capillaries seen on setae. Parapodia reach full size about segment 10 and each parapodium has laminar dorsal cirrus. A longer bristled lobe was present with a long cirriform appendage. A posterior uncini was present with 5 teeth and arranged in a row. Antennae are subequal and shorter than prostomium. Two black eyes were present and large and oval in shape. Parapodia were blunty and have conical dorsal cirrus, rounded ventral cirrus and broad setigerous lobe. Capillaries were seen on setae. Mandibles were white in colour and calcified distally. Gills were simple and begin on chaetiger 9 and continuing to near the end of the body. First two parapodia consist of winged capillary chaetae and simple stout hooks.
Owenia fusiformis (Delle Chiaje, 1844) (Plate 16; Figs. 16A-H)
Owenia fusiformis Delle Chiaje, 1844:31; Fauvel, 1927: 203, Fig. 71a-f.
Body relatively short, cylindrical anteriorly (Figs. 16A, B, C& H) was observed. Entire worm enclosed in a strong cartilaginous tube hardened by imbricating shell fragments and sand grains. A deep ventral groove was present and a pair of lateral grooves seen along the whole length. Long internal ventral cirrus was present. Worm was greenish brown in colour and the size was 100 mm length with 30 segments. The membrane mounted on a trilobed base and incised to form six main divisions. These divisions were enclosed and the terminal mouth which has three lobed dorsal and ventral lips (Fig. 16E). Dorsally bristles were formed. Three chaetigerous thoracic segments were present and short with notopodia. Two ocular marks was seen at the base of the membrane. Thoracic region has three short setigers bearing capillary setae. The first 5 abdominal segments were much longer, with noto and neuropodia. The posterior end of the body has short segments. Notopodial chaetae of thorax were spinose capillaries. The chaetae of the third bundle were shorter than the others. Parapodial lappets was absent on notopodia. Capillary spinulose was present (Fig. 16F). Abdominal neuropodia was wide, flattened tori with many small bidentate hooks clearly seen (Fig. 16D). Parapodia reach full size up to segment 10 and each parapodium has laminar dorsal cirrus, 2–3 times as long as broad were observed. A long bristled lobe was present with a long cirriform appendage and smaller ventral cirrus essentially similar to the dorsal one. Sandy tube was present (Fig. 16G).