The movement toward low-carbon human system over the last decade has been remarkable. Numerical scenarios describing future energy and land-use systems that attain climate change mitigation goals have been considered important sources of guidance for climate policymaking. However, no clear strategy for materialising green growth, i.e. vastly reducing greenhouse gas emissions without diminishing economic growth, has been outlined. Here, we describe the conditions needed for green growth under a wide range of carbon budgets. The results indicate that integration of multiple socioeconomic transformative measures would support green growth, including lowering energy demand, shifting to an environmentally friendly food system, technological progress on energy technologies and the stimulus of capital formation induced by green investment. No single measure is sufficient to offset mitigation costs fully, indicating that holistic societal transformation is needed, as the realisation of all measures depends on effective government policies as well as uncertain social and technological changes.