Lysosomes are key cellular organelles that metabolize extra- and intracellular substrates. Alterations in lysosomal metabolism are implicated in aging-associated metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. However, how lysosomal metabolism actively coordinates the metabolic and nervous systems to regulate aging remains unclear. Here, we report a fat-to-neuron lipid signaling pathway induced by lysosomal metabolism and its longevity promoting role in Caenorhabditis elegans. We discovered that lysosomal lipolysis in peripheral fat storage tissue up-regulates the neuropeptide signaling pathway in the nervous system to promote longevity. This cell-non-autonomous regulation requires the secretion from the fat storage tissue of a lipid chaperone protein LBP-3 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). LBP-3 binds to specific PUFAs, and acts through a nuclear hormone receptor NHR-49 and neuropeptide NLP-11 in neurons to extend lifespan. Together, these results reveal lysosomes as a signaling hub to coordinate metabolism and aging, and lysosomal signaling mediated inter-tissue communication in promoting longevity.