Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, different neurological manifestations have been published. However, few cases of Guillain-Barre Syndrome and COVID-19 have been reported. We describe a concomitant Guillain-Barre Syndrome and COVID-19 patient.
Case presentation: a 39 years old woman was admitted in a teaching hospital in Barranquilla, Colombia with a history of progressive general weakness with lower limb dominance. A previous symptom as ageusia, anosmia and intense headache was reported. On admission, facial diplegia, quadriparesis with lower limbs predominance and Medical Research Council Scale 2/5 in lower limbs and 4/5 in upper limbs was reported. During clinical evolution, due to general areflexia, hypertensive emergency and progressive diaphragmatic weakness, the patient was admitted to intensive care unit. Cerebrospinal Serum Fluid revealed protein-cytologic dissociation and electromyography test were compatible with Guillain-Barre Syndrome. By symptoms before hospitalization, SARS-CoV2 diagnostic testing was performed with positive result in second test. Management to COVID-19 and Guillain Barre Syndrome was performed and patient was discharged after 20 days of hospitalization with clinical improvement.
Conclusions: Few cases have been published reporting COVID-19 and Guillain-Barre Syndrome. We report the first confirmed case of COVID-19 with concomitant Guillain-Barre Syndrome in Colombia. In patients with Guillain-Barre Syndrome, several viral and bacterial pathogens have been found in case-control studies but there are do not clarity in what triggers the immune-mediated destruction of nerves. More studies are needed to determine possible association among COVID-19 exposure and Guillain-Barre Syndrome.