Five specimens were sequenced (URM 93082, URM 93251, URM 93329, O-F-110340, O-F-110341), generating five ITS and four LSU sequences (Table 1). These were combined with ITS and LSU sequences selected though BLAST searches against GenBank.
No strongly supported topological conflict was detected among the datasets analyzed (ITS, LSU and ITS + LSU) in the present study, thus only the combined analysis is presented here, performed mainly with ITS sequences since only that region is available for some key specimens. The combined dataset included 174 sequences (116 ITS and 58 LSU), with Climacocystis borealis (Fr.) Kotl. & Pouzar and Junghuhnia nitida (Pers.) Ryvarden as outgroup following Shan et al. (2018) (Table 1), and comprised 2138 characters including gaps.
The results of the phylogenetic analyses generated from ML and BA showed similar tree topologies and small or insignificant differences in statistical support values. Thus, the ML tree with bootstrap support values (BS) and posterior probabilities (PP) from Bayesian Inference of phylogeny (BI) was used to show the results of this study (Fig. 1).
The newly generated sequences are placed in a strongly supported clade (BS 99%, PP 0.99) with several samples of A. ludoviciana as well as other samples identified differently, previously deposited in GenBank. The A. ludoviciana clade is sister to a clade formed by Phlebia ochraceofulva and one unidentified sample and is genetically separated from the clade representing Phlebia s.s, typified by P. radiata, and from other described genera (Fig. 1).
Allophlebia C.R.S. de Lira, Gibertoni & K.H. Larss., gen. nov.
Mycobank: MB 838838
Etymology—Allophlebia (Gk) = “allo-” other, different; “-phlebia” referring to genus Phlebia.
Basidiomata resupinate, effused, adnate, ceraceous; hyphal system monomitic, all septa with clamps; thin-walled smooth leptocystidia and thick-walled encrusted cystidia present; basidia clavate, with four sterigmata; basidiospores ellipsoid, thin-walled, smooth, inamyloid, indextrinoid and acyanophilous.
Type species: Peniophora ludoviciana Burt
Allophlebia ludoviciana (Burt) C.R.S. de Lira & K.H. Larss., comb. nov., Fig. 2a-f
Mycobank: MB 838839
Basionym: Peniophora ludoviciana Burt, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 12 (3): 244 (1926)
Description: Nakasone et al. (1982).
Remarks: Allophlebia is so far monotypic. Allophlebia ludoviciana is characterized by a resupinate, ceraceous and golden yellow to deep orange basidioma (Fig. 2a-b), a smooth to minutely warted hymenophore without reaction in 3% KOH, and a monomitic hyphal system. Two types of cystidia can be observed: 1) Leptocystidia, narrowly obclavate to ventricose, hyaline and projecting above the hymenium, (35)45–70 × 5.5–7 µm (Fig. 2e), and 2) Cylindrical metuloids, heavily encrusted with hyaline crystals, with obtuse to slightly conical apex, immersed in the hymenium, 35–70 × 6–9 µm (Fig. 2f). The basidia are narrowly clavate and the basidiospores are ellipsoid, (4.5)5.5–6.5 × 2–2.5 µm, smooth, thin-walled, hyaline (Fig. 2f) and IKI- and CB-. Allophlebia ludoviciana and Phlebia subochracea are both bright yellow-orange when fresh and tan to light brown when dry. However, P. subochracea has longer and narrower basidiospores (5–7 × 1.5–2 µm) and lacks the metuloids found in A. ludoviciana (Nakasone et al. 1982).
Distribution: Allophlebia ludoviciana and specimens of this species identified differently were reported as saprobes, endophytes or as airborne basidiospores from Jamaica, Saint Lucia and United States of America (Nakasone et al. 1982, Ritttenour et al 2014), Cuba and Bermudas (Hjorstam & Ryvarden 2001), Mexico (Tapia & Chacón 2015), Ecuador, French Guyana, China and possibly Colombia (Fig. 1, Table 1). Here the presence in Brazil is confirmed (Fig. 1, Table 1). The Brazilian specimens studied by us were collected on decaying wood in Atlantic Rainforest (Southeast and Northeast Brazil) and montane forests in Caatinga (Brejos Nordestinos). In addition, there is a report of A. ludoviciana from the Southeastern Atlantic Rainforest identified as Grammothelopsis puiggarii (Table 1).
Material examined: Brazil: Alagoas, Quebrangulo, Reserva Biológica Pedra Talhada, leg. R.L.M. Alvarenga & A. Meiras-Ottoni, A., 6 June 2017, RC38 (URM93082), Ibid, leg. V. Xavier de Lima, 19 Sep. 2018, VXL550 (URM93250), Ibid, 20 Sep. 2018 VXL591 (URM93251); Paraiba, Areia, Reserva Ecológica Estadual Mata do Pau-Ferro, 29 April 2013, C.R.S. Lira 583 (URM 93329), Ibid. K.H. Larsson 16092 (O-F-110341), Ibid, Mamanguape, Reserva Biológica Guaribas, 30 May 2015, R.S. Chikowski 1300 (URM92973); Pernambuco, Cabo de Santo Agostinho, 7 June 2018, VXL155 (URM93249); Ibid, Igarassu, Refúgio Ecológico Charles Darwin, 12 May 2017, R.S. Chikowski 1536 (URM93061), Ibid, Jaqueira, RPPN Natural Frei Caneca, 30 Sep. 2012 R.S. Chikowski 381 (URM92972), Ibid, 9 March 2013, R.S. Chikowski 548 (URM85875); São Paulo: Santos, Cananeia, Ilha do Cardoso, 2–5 Feb. 1987, L. Ryvarden 24695 (O-F-110338); São Paulo: São Paulo, Parque Estadual Fontes do Ipiranga, 16–24 Jan. 1987, K. Hjortstam 16335 (SP213701); Ibid L. Ryvarden 24141 (O-F-110339). Colombia: Magdalena, Parque Nacional Tayrona, Estacion de Gairaca, 12 June 1978, L. Ryvarden 15780 (O-F-918462). Ecuador: Orellana, Yasuni Nat. Park, Yasuni Research St., 9–12 Mar. 2002, L. Ryvarden 44743 (O-F-110340). USA: Iowa, Iowa City, 8 July 1934, D.P. Rogers 104 (O-F-504275); Louisiana, Plaquemines Parish, F. Edward Hebert Center, 26 July 1972, W.B. & V.G. Cooke 45633 (O-F-908538).