Reliable waste management system required to properly and sustainably dispose both domestic and industrial wastes. Waste management data provides a comprehensive resource for critical and informative evaluation of waste management options in all waste management programs (Chang and Davila, 2008; Qdais et al., 1997). The required waste management evidences are lacking in developing countries (Buenrostro et al., 2001) but if they are available, they are inconsistent and non-interoperable as they collected from secondary sources at different space and time, which are difficult to be validated and are sometimes based on assumptions not scientific measurements (IPCC, 2006). This case is also common for Ethiopia and its capital. Addis Ababa is a capital city of the country as well as the seat of the African Union and various forms of political, social, cultural and economic activities are going on (Shiferaw et al., 2016). As a result, different types of environmental pollution are arising from such activities. The population immigration from different corners of the country, rapid expansions of industrial sectors, and their improper waste disposal management have resulted in serious environmental and health problems, such as widespread water and air pollution, noise pollution, waste accumulation, serious air pollution and potable drinking water scarcity particularly in the lower catchments of the city. The government officials and experts agree that the dual influences of resource supply and protection of environment will pose a significant challenge to Addis Ababa City’s sustainable development.
Environmental problems became an issue of this decade both at local and national levels. In connection with the country as well as city's environmental degradation and industrial pollution, different proclamations and regulations were made at different levels (both at national and regional levels) to prevent and control the ongoing environmental crisis and restore if possible to their natural systems. Here, it is reasonable to mention some of the efforts made on productions of proclamations and regulations concerning to environmental pollution at the national and regional (city) levels. For example:
1. The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia states that”--- every citizen has the right to live in a clean and safe environment --- Article 44/1”. And “--- the government should strive to create safe and clean environment for all citizens --- Article 92/1”. And also “--- any development intervention ensures the safety of the environmental --- Article 92/2”. In the same article, there is more idea concerning the environment as “---both government and the people should take care of their environment --- Article 92/4”.
2. Environmental Pollution Control Proclamation: Proclamation No. 300/2002. It stated as "--- some social and economic development endeavors may inflict environmental harm that could make the endeavors counter-productive. --- the protection of the environment, in general, and the safeguarding of human health and wellbeing, as well as the maintaining of the biota and aesthetic value of nature, in particular, are the duty and responsibility of all; --- it is appropriate to eliminate or, when not possible, to mitigate pollution as an undesirable consequence on social and economic development activities" (Negarit, 2002).
3. Environmental Impact Assessment Proclamation: Proclamation No 299/2002. It is also stated as "--- environmental impact assessment is used to predict and manage the environmental effects which a proposed development activity as a result of its designing setting, construction, operation, or an ongoing one as a result of its modification or termination, entails and thus helps to bring about intended development. --- assessment of possible impacts on the environment prior to the approval of a public instrument provides an effective means of harmonizing and integrating environmental, economic, cultural and social considerations into a decision making processing in a manner that promotes sustainable development. --- environmental impact assessment serves to bring about administrative transparency and accountability, as well as to involve the public and, in particular, communities in the planning of and decision making on developments which may affect them and its environment" (Negarit, 2002). In connection with this National Proclamation, local regulation also made at Addis Ababa level, and it is read as follows:
4. Addis Ababa City’s Regulation No. 21/2006. It also stated as "--- it is found necessary to ascertain in advance the examination of those social and natural environment of negative significant impact to be presumed social and development projects in order to reduce and suspend the following negative environmental impacts on the community and natural environment before the commencement of the work. --- it has become necessary to follow up and ascertain those undertaking development activities in the City to be implemented inconformity with the conditions of the principle of sustainable development and without obstructing environmental security; ---" (Denb, 2006).
In addition to these proclamations and regulations, different awareness campaigns and discussion forums have been undergoing by environmentally concerned institutions and as well as groups of activators (Fasil and Fasil, 2008). Governmental and non-governmental as well as civic societies were involved for fighting environmental pollution in the city. The other point of interest is, media and news press agencies are giving special attentions to the environmental issues especially on city's pollution.
However, there is still wider gap between policies (the regulations and proclamations made) and practical contexts (what has been going on the ground) to bring about expected changes on the environment. There may be a lot of reasons for this: some of which may be: especially in the case of Ethiopia in general and Addis Ababa in particular, are the awareness level of the society (Zerfe, 2007; Getaneh, 2008); the accessibility of disposal sites (disposal systems) to dispose waste materials (Shiferaw, 2008; Ambaye, 2015); and implementation gaps of those policies due to weak institutional and accountability arrangements till grassroots’ levels (Fasil and Fasil, 2008). Moreover, establishment of such organization was not spatially segregated from other services sites and hence they aggravated the pollution of the environment from time to time (Shiferaw et al., 2016). Therefore, a lot of work should be done to implement those policies, thereby bringing environmental friendly sustainable development as well as maintaining social, economic, cultural and aesthetic values of the city that would help to speed up the economic development and health of the environment as well as the people.
Therefore, this paper is an initiative, which will have immense roles for further research, discussion and policy development to safeguard the environment and health of the society living in and around the city. The general objectives of this study are of three types: (1) to build geo-database for possible pollution sources with particular emphasis on industry sectors and other service providing institutions in the metropolis, (2) to identify and map pollution source points so that researchers and decision-makers will play their respective roles in fighting against pollutions in and around their area of interest, and (3) to offer information on the city’s pollution status for industry owners/investors, experts, policy and decision-makers so that they will be able to visualize the potential sources of pollutants in the city so that they design appropriate technologies and actions to waste management systems and mitigate environmental pollution which would contribute for sustainable socio-economic development of the city.