Historical records truthfully document human life and environment associated with climate changes. We quantify official historical records of China dating back last two thousand years to examine the disasters due to anomalous temperatures of cold or hot, irregular precipitations of wet or drought, and floods in inland/coastal or Northern/Southern areas in four seasons that possibly linked to solar activities during 1-1825 CE (Common Era). Statistical results show that extreme cold weather occurs particularly in the Winter and Spring during low solar activity (LSA) periods. Irregularities precipitations, including heavy rain/hail/snow and severe drought are significantly frequent during LSA periods, while floods on inland and coastal river basins tend to occur more frequently in LSA and high solar activity (HSA) periods, respectively. The two disasters frequently happen in Summer and Autumn, which suggests that the irregular precipitations could cause the floods. The disasters occur significantly in the Nouthern China, which suggests that the climate boundary of the Qinling–Huaihe Line along at about 33°N plays an important role. In total, the disasters due to the anomalously cold temperatures, irregular precipitations, and floods tend to occur during the LSA periods.