Climate change is going to be one that presents major challenges facing pastoral system, especially in arid and semi-arid region. How pastoralists perceive and adapt has become increasingly important part in providing foundation for households and governments to develop adaptation policies. This article aims to investigate the pastoralists' perceptions on climatic change variability and impacts, in addition, to explore the pastoralists' adaptation strategies and determinants using a Multivariate Probit Model, as well as barriers and needs in the adaptive process. We collected questionnaires from the pastoral areas across four districts in Inner Mongolia. The findings revealed that pastoralists' perception of the inter-annual temperature variation is relatively coincide with actual meteorological data. This study found that 11 adaptation strategies have been commonly used by pastoralists, moreover, household production capital, risk-buffering capacity, and social network influenced the pastoralists' adaptations. However, barriers remain for pastoralists, such as inadequate capital and labor, lack of water, limited access to credit, technological knowledge, and timely weather information. Further, our findings indicated that pastoralists need hazard relief fund, improved pasture facilities, technical knowledge training, active weather-based information, integrated pest and disease management and off-farm employment opportunities. This combination of our findings potentially provides some support for developing appropriate and long-term specific policies to mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change.