Long-term monitoring shows intensive management can significantly change soil properties and cause soil degradation. Knowledge related to the spatio-temporal variation of soil properties and their influencing factors are important for nutrient management of economic forest plantation. Here, we conducted an intensive field investigation in Chinese hickory plantation to clarify the spatial and temporal variation of soil properties and its influencing factors, and to evaluate the change of soil fertility. The results showed that the soil pH and soil organic carbon (SOC) significantly increased from 2008 to 2018, while available N significantly decreased from 2008 to 2018. The semi-variance revealed that except available P, the spatial dependencies of soil properties increased from 2008 to 2018. An increasing south-north gradient was found for soil available N, available P, available K and SOC and a decreasing south-north gradient was found for soil pH. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the change of soil properties from 2008 to 2018 was mainly influenced by anthropogenic factors. The average soil fertility in the whole area was at a medium level from 2008 to 2018. These change of soil properties can provide a reference basis for monitoring the effects of intensive management on soil environment.